Disaster Advice
 
Disaster Advice Disaster Advice
Disaster Advice Disaster Advice Disaster Advice
Disaster Advice
 
 
Disaster Advice
Disaster recovery and restoration can be veiled in mystery to the many who have not undertaken specific training. This glossary explains technical terms to assist both report writing and the understanding of those technical terms so often misunderstood.

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

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Abandoned Property
In insurance terminology abandoned property is property which has been intentionally vacated or discarded typically because of a hazardous or potentiallly hazardous condition. Education Note Depending on the situation resulting in the abandonment the abandoned property rights of a policy.

Abandonment
The willful vacating of a building. The willful removal discarding and/or disposal of a content.

Abandonned Dwelling
In water fire and chemical exposures an abandoned dwelling is a building dwelling to an office suite which has beeen intentionally vacated typically because of a hazardous or potentially hazardous condition. Education Note An abandoned dwelling after a period of time loses its insurance policy rights even though a policy is active typically 30 days after the date of abandonment.

Abate
To cut away remove completely.

Abatement
a The completeremoval of a contaminate in providing abatement services. Education Note Pertaining to water and sewage damage the ability of specially trained water damage contractors to assess control remove and completely eliminate any and all water and effluent damage and environmental concerns bacteria and fungi in buildings. Contractor Note Unlike the words mitigation and remediation which means to control to lessen to a reasonable and acceptable level abatement interpretation is the complete removal of contaminate. See Bioremediation Mitigation Remediation.

Above Grade
a Buildings which are built on a foundation having an average of 18 clearance or greater of well ventilated air space. b Any section of a building that is above ground height.

Above Grade Subfloors
A floor above ground levels but having no headroom below.

Abrade
To scrape or wear away a surface or material by friction or striking.

Abrams%u0027 Law
The rule stating that with given materials curing and testing conditions concrete strength is inversely related to the ratio of water to cement. Low water-to-cement ratios produce high strengths.

Abrasive
A more course or harder material that is capable of debriding the surface of another material such as sand paper. An abrasive can be a soft abrasive which when mixed with water allows for gentle surface cleansing such as scouring powder baking soda or Soft-Scrub TM

Abrasive Blasting
A process by which compressed air and a mixture of particulate materials are forced across or on to another surface for the purpose of removing a material or contaminate. See Air Blasting Air Sparging

Abrasive Cleaner
A substance such as a powdered cleaner having a scouring effect which is used to remove surface contaminates and loose stains. Abrasive cleaners must be tested to insure that they will not harm discolour or damage a material surface. Mitigation Note Abrasive cleaners are very important in the structural breakdown of Gram-negative bacteria cell structure in sewage blackwater contamination of non-porous building materials.

Abreuvoir
The mortar joint between masonry units.

Absolute Humidity
Total water vapour in unit or mass. Absolute humidity is usually is expressed in grams of water per kilogram of air. Education Note For an easier rule grains of moisture Grains per pound GPP can be calculated instead of using grams per kilogram. See Grains of Moisture Psychometrics Relative Humidity

Absolute Pressure
Air at standard conditions 70 degrees F air at sea level with a barometric pressure of 29.92 in. Hg. exerts a pressure of 14.696 psi. Thjis is the pressure in a system when the pressure gauge reads zero. So the absolute pressure of a system is the gauge pressure in pounds per square inch added to the atmospheric pressure of 14.696 psi use 14.7 psi in environmental system work.

Absorb
In water damages the temporary ability of porous building materials and contents to absorb hold and retain liquid water and water vapour for periods of time. Education Note Like a sponge most absorbent materials are able to give up their water when atmospheric conditions are desirable or when forced to through dynamic pressure. See Absorbant Air Dynamics

Absorbed Moisture
Moisture that has been absorbed by a porous or semi-porous solid materialsuch as drywall wood or masonry.

Absorbed water
Surface water which is held in place by tension or electrochemical forces. The adhesion of water in the form of molecules as a liquid vapour or gas as a dissolved substance bound in or on a material.

Absorbency
The moisture measurement difference between a dry porous material and a saturated material is a weight neasurement of the material absorbency. Education Note The ability of a porous building material like drywall and some insulation to absorb water and very high humidity rapidly.

Absorbent
Any material that has an affinity for certain substances and attracts these substances from a liquid or gas state with which it is in contract. A substance that attracts and holds quantities of water vapour or a liquid.

Absorber
A mechanical device such as a dehumidifier which collects and contains liquid from the absorption of water vapour.

Absorbtivity
The ratio amount of water which is able to absorb in a porous material.

Absorption
A process whereby a porous material extracts one or more substances present in an atmosphere or a mixture of gases and liquids accompanied by the material temporary physical and/or chemical change into another material. Education Note Absorption in water damage building materials is the temporary entrapment of moisture into porous and semi-porous building materials such as carpets pad drywall and cellulosic insulation. See Absorb Absorbency Absorption

Absorption Chiller
A heat operated refrigeration unit that uses an absorbent lithium bromide as a secondary fluid to absorb the primary fluid water which is a gaseous refrigerant in the evaporator.

Absorption Loss
Water losses that occur in wet building materials that are not retrieved during the restorative drying process. Absorption loss can be described as the unknown water quantity which dispersed and flowed in a building and was not recovered.

Absorption Rate Initial Rate of Absorption
The weight of water absorbed by a building material that is partially immersed in water for one minute five minutes or ten minutes. The absorptive weight increase as compared to dry weight is expressed in ounces of water weight per minute five minutes or ten minutes.

Acceleration
In structural drying the amount of time or increase of evaporation which a building or a material is dried.

Acceleration Velocity
The rate of change in velocity of air as a moving body which over time can assist and aid in drying wet building materials and contents. See Air Movement Dynamic Pressure entrainment Velocity Turbidity Air Currents

Acceptable Indoor Air Quality
Indoor air in which there are no known contaminants at harmful concentrations and with which a substantial majority usually 80%u0025 of the occupants exposed do not express a dissatisfaction.

Acceptable Indoor Therma Comfort
An indoor environment which at least 80%u0025 of the occupants would find as being thermally acceptable to temperature humidity and air velocity.

Accesible
In cleaning and mold remediation that area which is easily accessed and is able to be cleaned or mold remediated. In repair and restoration that area which is easily removed repaired restored replaced or serviced.

Access
In legal terms the offers and acceptance to allow a person or contractor access to a building or property. The means of entry into a buiding area or room.

Access Door or Panel
An inspection service or repair area usually concealed in a building in service areas.

Access Flooring
A raised area of a floor that has removable panels to allow access to the floor and space below the primary floor. Education Note A computer floor is often an access floor serving the equipments electrical supply with conduit and air conditioning. During a water damage all access floors must be carefully evaluated first by the computer technicians then the water damage technicians.

Access Point
An opening into a building vent hole or other part of a building or material.

Accident
A sudden unexpected event identifiable in terms of time and place that results in personal injury or property damage.

Acclimatization
The physiological adjustment of a person or even an organism to adjust to a new unusual or modified environment. Education Note Acclimatization can be found in building environments which have changed due to a water damage flood or sewage contamination. See Sensory Perception

Accord and Satisfaction
A legal term referring to an agreement between two or more parties to contract whereby at least one or all parties accept payment in the compromise of a dispute claim or change proposal. Typically this term is used concerning a mutual release of responsibility for a claim upon an agreed payment. See Settlement

Accuracy of Moisture Measurements
The degree which electronic moisture sensoring and monitoring equipment are capable of calculating the moisture content of water damaged building materials and atmospheres.

Acetone
A highly flammable organic solvent. Acetone is used with lacquers paint thinners paint removers and strippers. Health and Safety Note Acetone by itself is a clear colourless solvent having a mint-like odour. Acetone can cause skin irritation and flammable in improperly ventilated atmospheres. Acetone is also called ketone propane and propanone.

ACGIH
An abbreviation for the American Conference of Governmental and Industrial Hygienists Association. See AIHA Bioaerosol Assesment and Control

ACH Air Changes per Hour
The measurement of the complete replacement of inside air within a building area measured over an exact period of time. Education Note An office or space which has its total air volume replaced in the time period of one hour experiences one Air Change per Hour.

Acid Smoke in Water/Fire Damages
A result of acids from fire damage in a building of the residue vapours and airborne char residues which are present. Education Note Fire related acids along with the water damage and high humidity increase the corrosion potential of finishes on metals computer circuit boards and other finishes.

Acids
A class of chemical substances having a PH below 7 on the PH scale. Education Note Acids have the ability to react with bases and certain metals to form salts. Acids in a water solution yield hydroxide ions. Acids can be very dangerous to breathe and have skin contact with. All chemicals especially acids must be handled as per manufacturer instructions. Improper use of acids can result in severe burns causing permanent injury.

ACM Asbestos Containing Materials
See Asbestos Asbestos Containing Materials

Acoustic Blown Ceiling
A compressor blown-on ceiling made primarily of paint and mineral fibres. Sometimes prior to 1980 the mineral fibres were asbestos. Acoustic blown ceiling are usually found in residential buildings.

Acoustic Board
A construction material in board form that restricts or controls the transmission of sound.

Acoustic Ceiling
A ceiling that has the ability to absorb sound.

Acoustic Materials
Building materials which absorb sound and noise such as carpet and acoustic tiles. Education Note Most sound absorption materials besides being good sound insulators are also highly absorbant and they are capable of retaining unwanted moisture and humidity after a water damage.

Acoustic Spray
A fibrous material blown on to the surface of a wall or ceiling for the purpose of sound reduction.

Acoustic T-Bar Ceiling
A ceiling made with metal wire hangers and metal T-bar assembly and inserts of 2%u0027 %u00D7 2%u0027 or 2%u0027 %u00D7 4%u0027 acoustic ceiling tiles. Acoustic T-bar ceilings are usually found in commercial building and offices.

Acoustic Tile
A formed material usually made with cellulosic substances and binders that are compressed into a tile form. Acoustic tiles take many shapes from 12%u00D712%u00D72 tiles that are stapled or mastic adhered to walls and ceilings to 2%u0027%u00D72%u0027%u00D72%u0027 and 2%u0027%u00D74%u0027%u00D72 tiles for placement into a ceiling grid.

Acoustic Acoustical
Building materials containing producing arising from actuated by related to or associated with sound absorption.

Acoustical Plaster
A plaster finish coat applied on the surface of drywall or button board. Education Note The plaster is a sound absorptive plaster that has large cell structures to absorb sound or it has a texture to break up the sound wave while reducing bounce back.

Acremonium
Fungi which are members of the genus that are found in soil on decaying plant matter and compost including dead wood. Education Note Acremonium can be identified in indoor air samples after a water damage and its presence may warrant further investigation in determining why it is indoors.

ACS
An abbreviation for the Air Conveyance System. The air conveyance sytem is the mechanical air handling part of the building ventilation system.

Act of God
An unforseeable and an uncontrollable event caused by natural forced over which an insurance policy holder has little or no control such as floods earthquakes tornadoes windstorms and lightning strikes.

Actinomycetes
A group of soilborne bacteria that are mould-like in appearance. These organisms are sometimes found in flood-contaminated buildings. The characteristic musty smell of wet/damp soil comes from compounds released by this group of bacteria. Education Note a Soilborne bacteria and mould in flooded buildings usually consist of dirt mud and/or silt. And when removed most of the bacteria and mould-like smells on top of hard surfaces will go away with detergent washing rinsing disinfecting and fast drying. b The presence of soilborne bacteria and mould-like odours will not go away in porous building materials that have come in contact with the flood water. These materials must be removed and disposed . The remaining building materials must be detergent washed rinsed and thoroughly dried then inspected for additional damage. c In particular actinomycete bacteria produce similar smells to some fungi and they appear under the microscope structurally similar to certain fungi. See Saprophytic Fungi

Action Level AL
a Under OSHA regulations a measured concentration of certain airborne contaminates or noise in the workplace that require immediate attention by testing exposure levels. b A term used by OSHA and NIOSH to express the level of toxicant which required medical surveillance usually one half the PEL. Education Note In water damage emergencies the level of action emergency managers determine is necessary for workers when entering and exposing themselves to a contamination or hazard.

Action Plan
After a disaster and a review of the assessment and inspection phase also called the loss and evaluation phase an action plan includes all elements of the preliminary findings incorporated into a plan called the action plan. The action plan is the operation and performance which all work is to be completed and in the order they are addressed. An action plan is usually an oral plan that is implemented at a tail-gate meeting. An action plan is based on the best available control technology by a supervisor using his best professional judgement.

Action-Bac Carpet
Action-Bac a Trademark name of the Amoco Fabrics Company. The term Action-Bac carpet relates to the secondary backing of a carpet which is a stretchable backing. Mitigation and Restorative Drying Note Action-Bac carpets when wet and during their drying in place will tend to stretch. Even after reinstallation after drying an Action-Bac carpet still having higher than normal humidity coming up from a wet slab or subfloor will appear to be baggy slack or loose which in fact it is. Liability Note The loose relaxed carpet can cause trips and falls. Under these situations Action-Bac carpet may require its removal until the excess moisture from a slab or subfloor can be abated. Caution Note Do not cut excess yardage off the perimeter of an Action-Bac carpet. This may cause the carpet to split at the seams or pull away from the walls after the subfloor is dry.

Activated Carbon
Carbon charcoal that has an increased absorption capacity of retaining chemicals vapours hydrocarbons and sometoxins from a contaminated environment. Education Note Scrubbing contaminated indoor air with an air scrubber having an activated carbon charcoal-based filter are capable of trapping and reducing organic vapours in a building. Activated charcoal is commonly used as a gas vapour absorbent in air-prifying respirators and as a solid sorbent in air-sampling. See Adsorbent Air Scrubbers Air Sparging

Activation Reaction
The minimum energy required for a chemical or a biological reaction to take place. Education Note In a reaction the reactant molecules come together and chemical or biological bonds are stretched broken and reformed to produce new products. Mitigation Note In a wet building water damaging event for example during the flooding phase the water becomes the catalyst activation reaction allowing biochemical energy to be produced and increase from moisture. The biomechanical energy activation reaction decreases to the original energy only after the building has been dried out properly. The activation energy Ea reaction is the difference between the maximum energy and the energy of the water and moisture vapour reactants. The activation reaction determines the way in which the rate of the reaction varies with temperature and humidity. In other words the activation reaction fresh water flooding is reversible drying and dehumidification and the activation reaction it is meant to return back to a balance or equilibrium as long as the building materials are dried out properly and within a reasonably short period of time. See Balanced Drying

Active Ingredient
One or more compounds either dry or in solution that enable the active ingredient compounds to perform a specific function.

Activity and Building Occupancy Use and Limitations
A term describing the type of building activity and the particular occupancy use in a building. Education Note Activity may indicate that the business enterprise in the building contains a laboratory compared to regular office usage. Or the activity is a preschool compared to a plating shop. Building occupancy must be considered as for example a 2000 square foot home may have 4 persons residing in it during an 8 hour period whereas a 2000 square foot office suite has 50 people working in it during an 8 hour period. Adjustor Note The activity of a building and its occupants may limit the remedial actions of a loss. Certain activity may result in the physical limitation of building occupants and restrict other persons from entering loss site. Knowing the activity and building occupancy usage is important and it must be described in detail in the historical information about a claim.

Acute
Describing a sudden exposure to a significant dose of a dangerous substance. See Anaphylactic Shock Chronic

Acute Exposure
In toxicology the contaminate doses received over a period of 24 hours or less. Some acute exposures can result in temporary and permanent health effects while other acute exposures can result in death. Education Note A single exposure to a toxic substance from a water damage situation may be as a result of an exposure to airborne sewage bacterial toxins. To a water damage remediation worker an acute exposure may include some of the chemicals that are loose in a building while being activated in solution or some of the cleaning and disinfectant chemical they come in contact with as part of their work.

Acute Health Effects
A circumstance in which a chemical or substance results in the rapid development of severe symptoms.

Acute Toxic Chemical
A chemical substance having the ability to cause and result in an acute reaction to the chemical. While the substance has an immediate health effect it does not necessarily mean there will be permanent adverse effects to workers who are treated shortly after an exposure.

Acute Toxicity
a Toxicity resulting from an acute exposure. The adverse effects closely spaced in time between the absorbed dose and the toxic material. b A substance so poisonous as to cause severe biological harm or death soon after a single exposure or dose.

ACV Actual Cash Value
In property insurance adjusting ACV means replacement cost new less depreciation. Education Note Actual Note Actual cash value is calculated by the cost of the the replacement minus a ceratin value for depreciation. See RCV Replacement Cost Value

ADA Americans with Disabilities Act
A federal law passed by the U.S. Congress to protect Americans who have disabilities. Under the law buildings are to be modified and retrofit to meet the revised building code requirement of those who are disabled.

Adamant Plaster
A quick setting plaster applied over the undercoat plaster.

Adaptation
The ability of a substance or environment to change or modify based on temporary or a permanent change. Education Note Adaptation can temporarily occur in wet buildings where the interior environment becomes humidified for a short period of time. If the building is allowed to remain wet environmental changes may alter the building resulting in the building to adapt to its new environment. Persons occupying the wet building may feel the health effects of the environmental influences from fungi and other biological influences. Some persons may not experience the health effects while other persons may may not adapt to the previously flooded environment.

Addendum or Addendum to the Contract
A term phrase or paragraph of the contract which alters or changes specific portions of the contract. An addendum may be an addition deletion or modification of a particular contract provision. See Change Order

Addition
A term phrase or paragraph of the contract which modifies the contract to add items in the contract through a change order. See Addendum Change Order

Addition
An expansion to an already existing structure generally an increase of floor wall or room space that will increase the total volume of the structure.

Additional Living Expenses
In residential insurance policies it is that portion of the insurance contract that allows for the insured to temporarily relocate because of a damage disaster or health consequence caused by the dwelling from its damage. Education Note If a covered property loss makes the residential premises unfit to live in the policy typically covers the necessary increase in the living expense incurred by the insured so that the insured can maintain their normal standard of living. The insurance policy typically pays for the shortest time needed to a repair or replace the damaged property or b permanently relocate but in no event for more than 12 months.

Adhesion
The ability of a material to adhere and bond to another surface or material usually with a chemical binder or adhesive. Education Note In painting for example the adhesion increases as the surfaces are able to molecularly bond with each other.

Adhesion loss of
The resistance to delaminate or separate from one or more layers resulting in a loss of bonding strength.

Adhesive
A chemical substance used to bond materials together. In most carpets which have backings adhesives are applied between the primary and secondary backing. In plywood adhesives are used to bond layers of wood together. Often adhesives are stronger than the materials they hold or bond together while in other instances the loss of adhesion strength by the adhesive results in delamination or loss of structural integrety of the material.

Adiabatic
Changes in matter material which take place without the transfer of heat. A condition in which there is no change in the measurement of temperature where there is no gain or loss of heat but there can be a change involving the expansion or contraction of a material without the loss or gain of heat the change of entropy. An example is the curing of concrete or mortar or in a water damage building where wood floor expand because of water and not a a result of heat. Education Note in other words when heat is added or withdrawn from a material the material generally experiences changes in temperature pressure and volume and sometimes a change of its physical makeup. These changes severely involve the absorption or the release of energ which may be regarded respectively as positive nergy increments and there is an algebraic sum of which is equivalent to the quantity of heat either supplied or removed id the material could be provided with perfect thermal insulation so that no heat could enter or leave it then any change requiring energy which might take place within the material would necessarily be effected at the expense of energy by the other internal changes. But a rise of temperature might be caused by heat generated in compression. processes of this sort unaccompanied by any transfer of heat across the insulating boundaries of the material are said to be adiabatic. In reverse the adiabatic processes are also isentropic that is they take place without change to entropy. A hardwood floor expands due to water as a liquid of vapour that cause the cells to dilate resulting in wood expansion and over time the wood releases the water and vapour resulting in the hardwood floor to relax. Was there a change in temperature heat which caused the wood to expand or contract%u003F Sometimes not. The same is true for wet walls and partcleboard damage from contact with water resultingin the swelling and damage to the material. Adiabatic processes though hardly realized in practice by a water damage or restorative drying technician are often considered in thermodynamic reasoning. See Entropy

Adiabatic Processes in Atmosphere
When a parcel of air is moved from one atmosphere to another in a building with respect to the ambient air in such a manner that energy does not flow across boundaries thermal changes taking place are said to be adiabatic changes. Education Notes Any process in the buildings atmosphere occurring adiabatically is known as an adiabatic process. In water damaged buildings for example temperature and humidity are important. The adiabatic process during which the air involved in non-effected areas the parcels of air remaining unsaturated during the drying process are relatively simple and they do not effect the humidified air parcel directly. the adiabatic processes involving condensation or evaporation through dehumidification are considerably complicated by heat of condensation. Monor temperature and humidity changes within static air may not be important but the same changes in moving air may be significant. This method of measurement of heat or the absence of heat in a water damaged atmosphere of a building for example is based on the first law of thermodynamics. Author Note The author placed this brief discussion about adiabatic processes purposely to bring attention to the reader the seriousness about understanding building and restorative drying processes and methods and the dynamics required to dry a wet building properly. It is also reasonable to help technicians recognise that the use of a moisture probe or a moisture stick is only the tip of the iceberg when attempting to understand physics and natural laws of thermodynamics. The author is not attempting to have the subject fully discussed but is bringing the subject up for the reader to investigate further. See Adiabatic Entropy

Adjusted Base Costs
The total estimate or estimated cost of a project or repair after adding or deducting changes.

Adjusted Dry Bulb Temperature
The average of the air temperature ta and the mean radiant temperature tr at a given location. The adjusted dry bulb temperature tadb is approximately equivalent to operative temperature to at air motions less than 80 fpm 0.4 m/s when tr is less than 120%u00B0F 50%u00B0C.

Adjuster
A professional and knowledgable person who has been trained in the art of adjusting of property losses. A property adjuster is not a contractor nor do they claim to be. Education Note Adjusters will often retain the expertise of a licensed contractor to assess and estimate a loss and write a scope of work for the emergency and restoration phase in returning a building and its contents back to pre-loss conditions. Even though an adjuster is employed or retained by the insurance company the adjuster must employ and fairly balance all aspects of property claims adjusting.

Adjuster
A representative of an insurance company who has specific training and knowledge about claims and who negotiates with the insured in order to claim equitably. Besides the insured policyholder the adjuster deals with emergency repairand restoration contractors and acts as a middle man between all parties and the insurer insurance company.

Adjustment
The means it is necessary to attain settlement or adjustment in claims paid by an insurance company or other party. An adjustment in a claim will require the contractor and/or adjuster to document the loss type and extent of loss and determine repair or replacement cost value to which the claimant is entitled under the provisions of the policy after all allowances and deductions have been made.

Adjustment Factor
A calculation or constant usuallly a multiplier used to calculate damage or costs.

Administrative Controls
Methods used to control building contaminates during employee exposure. By changing work assignments rotation of workers reducing exposure time stress and other factors administrative controls can reduce stress and over exposure. See Action Level

Administrative Costs
On some jobs and insurance claims a contractor or engineer may oversee a project or be part of the overall team management of the project while not providing any direct equipment or manpower. Education Note The billing will include administrativecosts as a percent of the general overhead of the contractor or engineer. In other instances administrative costs are direct costs added to the job. See Mobilization Costs Overhead %u0026 Profit

Adsorbent
The incorporation of a liquid or energy absorbed into another substance. Absorbent of a substance can be a permanent change to the building material such as sewage contamination fire odour or pesticide exposure. Education Note For example the rate of adsorbency of drywall to adsorb a substance or a vapour will most likely cause permanent damage to the drywall material. Note %u0027Adsorbent%u0027 means to molecularly bond together. See Absorbent Adsorption

Adsorbent Sampling
One of a number of adsorbent materials used to collect a contaminate. Education Note Absorbent sampling such as from a carbon-type of sorbent sample media allows the collection of chemicals gases and vapours. After collection they the contaminates are adsorbed in a laboratory usually through GC/MS/FID. See Air Sampling Bulk Material Sampling Soil Sampling Surface Sampling swab Sampling Wipe Sampling Vacuum sampling

Adsorption
The ability of solids and liquids to codense consolidate and permanently bond to another surface or substrate.

Advection
In water damage mitigation the transfer of cold heat moisture particles and other properties in air by the horizontal motion of a movement of dynamic air. See Acceleration Velocity Convection

Adverse Health effects
The ability of a compound or agent to cause acute or chronic health effects. See Acute Aeroallergens Allergens Chronic Toxic Toxins Neurotoxins

Aeolian
Matter that is wind blown or transferred in the air.

Aeolian Contamination
Matter in the form of a contaminate which is transported and broadcast through dynamic air movement. Mitigation Note In water damage mitigation one of the concerns comes from clean up contractors who use portable equipment to extract and clean up indoor floods. The exhaust of the equipment indoors aerosolize micropollutants which are inhaled. Another concern is the use of air drying equipment in a dusty or biologically contaminated building or a building which has friable lead-based paint or asbestos. Caution Note No sewage or other pathogenic waste should be extracted into portable machines when the machines are left and allowed to exhaust indoors%u0021 See Aeolian Airborne Contaminates Airborne Microorganisms Bioaerosols Dusts

Aerate
To expose to air and flush out. An example would be a humidified building that needs aeration of the indoor air with dryer dehumidified air or a building that sustained a smoke-soot damage that will benefit through aeration.

Aeration
In water damage restorative drying the process by which dryer air is artificially introduced into wet building materials and contents allowing some building materials and contents to dry faster. See Air Movement Air Dynamics Acceleration Velocity Advection Turbidity

Aerobic
The ability of most fungi and bacterial organisms to live in an oxygenated environment. See Aerobic Bacteria Anaerobic

Aerobic Bacteria
Single-cell organisms including some of those oxygen-living bacteria in sewage and dirt that are responsible for some diseases and decomposition of organic materials. See Anaerobic Bacteria

Aerobiology
The scientific discipline that studies airborne allergey producing substances including dusts mites pollens mold and animal dander. Scientists and microbiologists specializing in airborne contaminates research and investigation are called aerobiologists.

Aerodynamic Forces
The forces exerted on particles to remain suspended either by the movement of air or gases and/or the change in temperature and pressure.

Aerodynamic Instability
In restorative building dryingand the use of air movers a harmonic motion occurring in an area or throughout the building during which high winds that results in damage to certain materials in the building. Education Note An example of aerodynamic instabiluity is when carpets are dried and forced-air is placed under the carpet and the carpet is allowed to flap up and down resulting in further damage to the carpet from the instability of the air movement.

Aerodynamic particles
The particles in air that stay suspended based on their diameter and dimension or their shape size and weight.

Aerollergens
Airborne allergen producing substances such as dust mites pollens mould and other airborne substances from animal dander and hair to human skin cells. Education Note Aeroallergens can be a vapour from perfumes or toxins from organic decay. See Aerobiology Aeolian Contamination Allergens

Aerosol
A suspension of fine gases liquids and solid droplets in air. Droplets of 0.01 to 100 microns in size which are able to stay suspended in air from short to long periods of time depending on size structural configuration and weight. See Bioaerosols Volatile

Affinity
A tendency for two or more substances to unite chemically or physically often resulting in their atoms combining and remaining combined.

Aflatoxins
A poisonous toxin found in some fungi such as Aspergillus flavius. Health Note a The species flavius usually produce harmful toxins in stored foods such as grains peanuts and cassava. b Aflatoxins are a human health concern both from eating contaminated food products and in breathing certain fungi toxins. c Aflatoxins have been found to cause liver cancer in laboratory animals and is believed to responsible for cancer in humans. See Endotoxins Exotoxins Mycotoxins

After-tack Residual Tack
A defect often in the paint that causes the painted surface to become tacky sticky under certain environmental conditions. Residual tack may be as a result of an environmental condition before painting.

Agency Law
Regulations rules and procedures written approved and promulgated by an agency such OSHA EPA FEMA to local city and county health authorities.

Agent
1 The person insurers use to represent and sell them an insurance policy. 2 The sworn or licensed person assigned by a governmental authority to act on the agency behalf. 3 The person acting on behalf of a building owner or principal.

Agent
Ingredients which cause chemical activity or reactions to take place such as with spotters and cleaning agents.

Agglomeration
The gathering and collection of a material or particles into a group cluster pile or mass. Education Note An example of an agglomeration is the collection of damaged building materials that are heaped together for bagging or removal or the sweepings of loose material into a pile.

Agitation
The spinning or rotation of water in the form of a liquid vapour or gas a solid such as powder or dust particulates suspended in the air or disturbing the undisturbed matter on a surface.

Agricultural Buildings
Means the non-resident farm buildings such as barns storage tool and maintenance sheds and other detached buildings from the farm house. Education Note Non-agricultural buildings may include garages where the residence car is stored on farm property but not garages where a tractor is stored which again becomes and agricultural building.

Air
The volume of all clean-breathable air having an average of 20.95%u0025 oxygen and a minimum 19.5%u0025 oxygen to be safefor human health. Fresh air is a combination of gases and particles that are not harmful to healthy humans plantsand animals. Health Note Building air is considered to be the indoor air which we breathe. Indoor air has an acceptable number and type of particles pollutants vapours and gases which should not be exceeded. See IAQ Ventilation Systems

Air
The colourless odourless and tasteless mixture of gases that support life on earth. 99%u0025 of clean dry air consists chiefly of four gases nitrogen and oxygen along with argon and carbon dioxide and smaller quantities of other gases such as neon helium methane krypton nitrous oxide hydrogen xenon and various organic vapours. Under actual conditions air contains up to 3%u0025 water vapour dusts spores and pollens. See Air Quality

Air Blasting
The process of using pressurised air and different size tips and nozzles to force and dislodge surface materials and contaminates. See Abrasive Cleaning Air Sparging

Air Changes
A measurement method expressing the amount air movement into or out of a room or building by the number of building volumes of air or room volumes of air exchanged per hour. Air changes are described as AC/h or ACH

Air Cleaner
A mechanically engineered device and filters that remove particles fumes vapours pollens and other bioaerosols from the air and in ventilation systems. Education Note Air cleaners in a building especially commercial and high-rise buildings have air clean filters installed on the suply side and sometimes on the return side before pollutants enter a building conditioned air space.

Air Conditioning Unit
A specifically designed and manufactured piece of equipment for the treatment of indoor air so as to control simultaneously its temperature humidity cleanliness and distributionthus meeting the air requirements of a conditioned space of a room zone or building.

Air Conditioning Unitary
An evaporator compressor and condenser combination. The unitary unit is specifically designed assembled and balanced to meet the air requiremnts of a conditioned space.

Air Density also known as Weight Density
The weight of air measured in pounds per cubic foot lbs/cu ft.. Dry standard air at a temperature T 70 degrees F bp 29.92 inch Hg has a density of 0.075 lbs/cu ft.

Air Diffuser
A circular square or rectangular air distribution outlet generally located in and on the ceiling and is comprised of deflecting vanes and louvres discharging supply air to various directions and planes. Air diffuser vanes or louvres are arranged in such a direction or pattern to promote the mixing of the primary with secondary room air.

Air Drying Process
Restorative Drying Note In water damaged buildings air drying is the process of removing wet humidified indoor air from a structure. The air drying process may be completed using natural means or engineering controls drying eequipment sufficient enough to dry the indoor air wet and humidified wall cavities and other building materials within a relatively short period of time before building damage occurs or mold growth occurs. See Air Dynamics Air Exchange Rate

Air Dynamics
The ability of air to have energy and force in motion. The transfer or induction of air from one area to another through pressure temperature or humidity. Air dynamics are in contrast with static air. Air dynamics can move airborne contaminates from or into porous materials. See Adiabatic Air Movement Air Pathway Convection Static

Air Exchange Rate
The rate speed at which the indoor air volume is to be exchanged one time from a building. Often the air exchange rate is expressed in air changes per hour ACH.

Air Exhaust
a The exhaust unit of an air conditioning system that extracts the contaminated indoor air from a room zone or building. See Exhausted Air

Air Filters for HVAC Supply Systems
Air filters are particulate filters which are used for protection of HVAC components and the reduction of airborne dust pollens and microorganisms from recirculated and from outdoor air streams. Education Note ASHRAE Standard 63-1989R requires filters having a minimum of 25-30%u0025 dust spot efficiency ASHRAE Standard 52.1 or %u003E60%u0025 efficiency ASHRAE Standard 52.2 for 3 micron particle. Where system design can accomodate them filters having %u003E65%u0025 efficiency for 1 to 3 micron size particles will improve the IAQ/IEQ with respect to respirable particles.

Air Injection
a The mechanical means of introducing forced dryer air into a humidified atmosphere or a wet wall cavity. b The process by which contaminated air is replaced with cleaner air.

Air Makeup
The outdoor air supplied indoors to makeup and replace exhaust air and exfiltration. Also referred to as makeup air.

Air Monitoring
In wet or humidified buildings air sampling is the sampling of ambient air using a scientific instrument for the purpose of assessing and monitoring temperature and humidity. The measurement of humidity and temperature for the purpose of monitoring the building drydown phase.

Air Monitoring
The measurements of pollutants and the microbiological activity in air. The sampling and monitoring of pollutants in the ambient atmosphere.

Air Movement
Restorative Drying Note In wet building drying the ability to move force large amounts of dryer air across wet surfaces allowing liquid water to become moisture vapour which is then exhausted or dehumidified. See Advection Aeration Airmover Dynamic Pressure Turbidity Air Currents

Air Pathway
The direction in which building air is forced through pressure. Air pressure in a building space or zone that is either under positive or negative pressure.

Air Quality
The quality of air outside a building should not be significantlt different than the indoor air except that indoor air is usually filtered air from dusts spores and pollens especially in tight or confined building spaces. Air which humans breathe outside and inside a building must meet certain governmental regulatory criteria.

Air Quality Standards
In outdoor air the air quality standars are set for the emissions of an outdoor environment and monitored by the local Air Quality Management District AQMD. In indoor air the air quality standards and guidelines are set and monitored by the Environmental Protection Agency EPA. In the united States there are 247 air quality control regions that manage outside air. each region contains at least two urban areas that share actual or potential air quality problems.

Air Sampling
One of several collection methods used to capture airborne contaminates from air. Education Note Air sampling may include charcoal sorbent sampling filtering vacuum extraction water impinges bioaerosol sampling. See Adsorbent Smapling Smear Tab Sampling Soil Smapling Surface Sampling Swab Sampling Tape Lift Sampling Water Sampling Wipe Sampling Vacuum Sampling

Air Scrubber
Depending on the application a machine that has an air intake and one or more - prefilters HEPA filters carbon filters plenum motor and exhaust that is contained in a metal housing. Mitigation Note Air scrubbers scrub and remove contaminated air allowing cleaner air to remain in a building. For example asbestos and lead abatement contractors must use HEPA filtered air scrubbers machines during abatement. When fungi and bacteria contaminated building materials are disturbed or removed air scrubbers must be installed for the protection of employees and for the reduction of cross-contamination in non-contaminated areas. See HEPA Air Scrubber.

Air Sparging
The use of pressurised air forced across a surface to breakaway and strip-off settled smoke soot lint dust and other surface-borne contaminates from a surface. Mitigation Note Air sparging is a method used in fire damage and dust-down remediation to remove contaminates and pollutants. Air sparging can be used in confined ceiling and attic spaces where general cleaning and HEPA vacuuming cannot be accomplished or are not cost effective. Education Note Quite often air sparging is more efficient than HEPA vacuuming and surface cleaning. The equipment for air sparging includes an air compressor as pressurized air blown across a contaminated surface and aerosolized. The aerosolized particles must not be allowed to become free in the air without being directed to a collection device airborne particulates must be captured down stream with negative air pressure and HEPA containment equipment bag filters. The air compressor and forced wind is to be directed towards the negative air flow and HEPA containment vacuums. Safety Caution Note 1 Do not under any circumstances use air sparging technology to aerosolize grains flour and any other farm product in a confined space or at all due to the potential for explosion. 2 Do not use air sparging technology if the mitigation employess are not properly fit with PAPR-type respirators and have appropriate PPE and the air sparging environment is not completely sealed off from non-effected areas of the building. See PAPR PPE

Air Stripping
Mechanical and engineering methods used to remove harmful contaminates gases and toxins from indoor air. Mitigation Note Air stripping may include fresh air forced negative air exhausting 100%u0025 air exhaust with 100%u0025 new air makeup HEPA extraction and/or carbon filtration of pollutants that may pose health issues to humans if the ambients remain for prolonged periods or contaminates exceed acceptable and permissable exposure levels. See Administrative Controls Air Cleaner Air Scrubber Carbon Filtration

Air Toxics
the airborne pollutants that may pose chronic health risks to humans when inhaled. See Allergies Asthma Respiratory Diseases Toxics Toxins

Air Ventilation and Recirculation
Outdoor air plus any recirculated indoor air that has been treated filtered for the purpose of maintaing acceptable indoor air quality.

Air Washer
A water spray system or device required for cleaning humidifying or dehumidifying the air before ventilation into a building.

Airborne Contaminates
Vapour gas and solid contaminates such as fumes and emissions carbon monoxide carbon dioxide and hydrocarbons dusts pollens and other bioaerosols including bacteria viruses fungi and yeasts.

Airborne Microorganisms
a Living decaying and dead microorganisms suspended in the air as free-floating particles and cells which can be inhaled. b Biologically active contaminates suspended in the air either as free-floating particles surrounded by a film or organic or inorganic material or attached to the surface of other suspended particulates. Education Note Airborne microorganisms can be biologically active contaminates surrounded by a film and cell wall or they can be attached to the dust dander and dirt. See Aeolian Contamination Aerobiology

Airflow
The ability of air to move and flow in a predesigned direction by forced air or negative air pressure.

Air-mover Airmover
A fan pump or other device that causes ear still staticair to move forward resulting in forced air pressure. Education Note a In water damage and odour control air movers are used to vapourise surface water and odours. b Forced air movement directs and suspends settled but not airborne contaminates to an outside source dehumidifier or air scrubber. c Employees who use airmovers during the drying phase must do so with proper respirator and eye wear protection. d Airmovers should only be used indoors after cleanup services have been completed. See Air Movement Air Scrubber Air Sparging Allergies Conjuctivitis Dynamic Pressure Pink-Eye respirable Particles Rhinitis

Air-Purifying Respirator APR
A filter cartridge half-face or full-face respirator having the proper filters to remove known or suspected airborne contaminates so they will not be allowed to enter the wearer nose or lungs.

Algae
A group of one-celled free floating green plant life often found in aquatic ecosystems. Point of Interest Note Algae is often found on buildings where sufficient sunlight photosynthesis humidity/moisture and organic nutrients exist. When identified algae on buildings are on the outside surface of a walkway or a garden and grow on the side and roof of a building. Investigation Note The presence of algae may be an indicator that there is mould and water damage behind the building substrate. Like mildew algae will flourish where is an adequate source of moisture and a nutrient such as dust and dirt.

Algae
A fresh water plant associated with fungi which forms a scum or film on the surfaces of the ventilation recirculated water apparatus and drain pans interfering with fluid flow and heat transfer. The presence of algae build up is an indication of poor maintenance and possible poor indoor air quality.

Alkali
A compound that has the ability to neutralise an acid and form a salt. For example sodium hydroxide referred to as caustic soda or lye. Alkali is used in soap manufacturing and many other applications. Alkali turns litmus paper blue.

Alkaline Salts
A material ability to loosen inert minerals when wet and after hydration. Engineering Note Under concrete slabs and concrete walls for example it is the moisture as high vapour pressure exerting through the concrete surrounded by air in which partial vapour pressure is rather low on the surface allowing water to pass from the mineral salts into air. The remaining salts are called efflorescence. See Efflorescence

Alkalinity Testing
The ability of a test to determine the alkalinity pH of a concrete surface. The test method and results must be repeated in more than one area and it must be reproduceable.

Allergens
Those substances that act as an antigen e.g. pollens dander dust mite proteins causing the formation of antibodies. Health and Saftety Note Allergens that form antibodies affect certain persons to certain substances. Allergens may cause moderate or severe skin reaction respiratory impairment and other health reactions. Allergens even in extremely low doses may still cause severe health reactions in some sensitized persons by hypersensitivity. See particulate Matter

Allergic Reactions
An abnormal physical or psychological reaction to a chemical or substance.

Allergic Sensitizers
Certain chemical and allergen producing substances that act as antigens to produce an allergic reaction after repeat sensitizing exposures to the skin or respiratory system.

Allergy
A number of disease symptoms caused by exposures to the skin and of the respiratory system. Dusts moulds mits grass animal dander and pollens are some of the primary allergens that cause persons to suffer from allergies. Health Note Water damaged buildings are known to increase indoor allergens and mite activity. The use of airmovers during building drying are known to cause some allergy sufferers to leave contaminated buildings.

Alligatoring
On painted surfaces alligatoring is a The result of water damge and/or high humidity causing a paint film to release from the surface and run down on top of itself on a wall due to excess moisture and stress. b A surface cracking to a coat of paint which has the appearance of an alligator hide. It is typically the last surface layer of paint on which alligatoring appears. c Alligatoring can appear from an improper application of a paint film being applied on to a surface containing too much moisture or by putting incompatible coatings over each other.

Allogenic Exosures
Health Note a Exogenous in nature caused by external factors such as a change in a microbial habitat microflora of a flooded building caused directly by and as a result of catastrophic flooding. b Allogenic exposures may also be a result of sewage contamination from sewer system backflows into a building. See Autogenic Exposures

Allowance
In insurance adjusting terminology the costs allotted as a reimbursement deduction or compensation by a contractor or insurer for some action or condition which exists at the property or a particular content.

Allowance
In material measuring and ordering the variation from an exact measurement taken for the purpose of anticipated material needs overage or minimum material costs.

Alluvial Soil
The soil commonly identified and associated with river flood plains. Referring to alluvium it is the fertile sediment deposits of alluvial soil. Alluvial soil is found in catastrophic flooded buildings it is rich in microbial nutrients. Mitigation Note It is very hard to remove all of the fine soil deposits in porous building materials including studs and sill plates. See Autogenic Exposures Fines

Alternaria
Common outdoor fungi found in soil. Alternaria primary growth season is late summer and early autumn. Alternaria is an allergen.

Alveolar Macrophage
a A scavenger cell that thrives naturally and can engulf phagocytize inhaled microbes and particles deposited in the alveolar region of the lungs. These are migratory cells which constitute a major part of the natural lung microflora and resistance of the body to diseases related to bacteria fungi and viruses. Health Note Reduction of the alveolar macrophage population can result in infection and scarring by certain particulate matter air contaminates. Respiratory Protection Note Proper respiratory protection by mitigation employees is their only defense in protecting the alveolar macrophage cells and reducing lung damage scarring.

Alveolitis
An inflammation of the alveoli sacs in the lungs. The most common cause of allergic reaction is from inhaling dusts and fungi spores.

Ambient
referring to the encompassing air the indoor air of a room wall or whole building. See Ambient Humidity

Ambient humidity
the indoor humidity of a builfing that is within a range of comfort typically between 35-60%u0025 humidity. Restorative Drying Note Ambient humidity is effected by the indoor water damages. Flooded building receive indoor humidity loads from 70%u0025 to 95%u0025 which must be removed and controlled before fungi growth occurs. Often wet building wall cavities are hidden and they are not identified as being a wet building issue resulting in poor ventilation and increased molds. See Absolute Humidity Fungi Relative Humidity

Amoebic Dysentery
a A disorder of the gastrointestinal tract caused by contact with a protozoan parasite belonging to the genus Entamoeba histolytica. The dysentery is common in communities having poor personal hygiene and sanitary conditions. Health Note b In catastrophic flooding the amoebic dysentery can be transmitted by contaminated water supplies contaminated food flies hand-to-mouth contact person-to-person contact and the remediation of nutrient rich mud and muck from flooded buildings.

Amplifier
In water damaged buildings an amplifier is the condition in which water in the form of a solid or vapour along with organic building materialsas nutrients trigger the growth of fungi and mold resulting in building material decay and potential health effects to building occupants.

Amps Ampage
The strength of electrical current as measured by a standard unit for measuring electricity. Mitigation Note a In water damaged mitigation building ampage must be calculated since a portion of the available electricity is to be used for building drying equipment. Electrical Note b The average air mover draws about 8 amps while the average commercial size dehumidifier draws 9 amps. The figures vary depending on manufacturer and model. c An average single family home has a 90/120 amp service while an average 1-2 bedroom appartment has 90 amps. It doesn%u0027t take much drying equipment to overload the ampage of the circuit or the building. See Generators

Anaerobic Bacteria
Those bacteria that survive in partial or complete absence of air. They include intestinal bacteria and many soil bacteria. See Aerobic. Aerobic Bacteria

Anaerobic Decomposition
The degradation oforganic materials by anaerobic organisms living in oxygen-deficient environments. In sewage rich soil anaerobic decomposition can result in the increase of methane and hydrogen sulphide gas.

Anaphylactic Shock
A rare but severe allergic reaction to a chemical vapour toxin or an allergen. Health and Safety Note Anaphylactic shock can be life-threatening and immediate medical response is often necessary. Some persons response to toxins can cause anaphylactic shock reactions. See Neurotoxins

Anderson Viable Air Impactor
A commercially made machine that is manufactured to a scientific standard it impacts viable airborne fungi bacteria and yeast spores onto an agar plate and media.

Anemometer
A scientific instrument that measures air velocity.

Anhydrous
Denoting a chemical compound lacking water of crystallization not hydrated. Many compounds like sulphur and sodium chloride are anhydrous.

Animal Dander
Small and microscopic size flakes of shed animal skin and hair including body oil urine and feces. Education Note Animal dander produce allergens and persons susceptible to certain animal dander have lgE antibodies to such allergens as cat FEL d-l Duffort et al. 1991. Persons suceptible to animal dander will most likely develop symptoms rapidly when entering a house where animals like cats are present since this allergen is constantly airborne Van Metre et al. 1996. Although there are significant differences in allergen content in homes with or without pets many homes that are normally without a cat nonetheless contain surprisingly high levels of Fel d-l in household dust Wood et al. 1998. It is felt that the homes not having animals present the allergen from animals is brought into the house on the clothes of the inhabitants . Levels of cat allergen for example as low as 2 ug Fel d-l/g of household dust commonly onserved in dust sample studies of houses without cats may be a risk factor for sensitization to Fel d-l Wood et al.1998. See Antigen

Annual Aggregate Limit
The total amount an insurance company ill pay for all occurrences which happen in each 12 month period beginning with the iception date of the policy regardless of the number of such occurrences.

ANSI American National Standards Institute
A membership organization that develops consensus standards nationally which are recognised internationally.

Antibiotic
a A chemical substance excreted by microrganisms or synthetically produced that has the capacity to inhibit or kill bacterial infections when applied in dilute solutions. b An immune system response from a chemical or biological substance including fungi and bacteria that react and are capable of producing allergic reactions in human. see Allergic Reaction Animal Dander Endotoxin Mycotoxin Toxin

Antigen
Any substance chemical particle or toxin that causes the formation of an antibody. b An immune system response from a chemical or biological substance including fungi and bacteria that react and are capable of producing allergic reaction in humans. See Allergic Reaction Animal Dander Endotoxin Myotoxin Toxin

Antimicrobial
A chemical agent responsible for reducing and controlling unwanted microscopic growth. Education Note Antimicrobial chemicals are not always disinfectants yet disinfectants are considered to be the microbial of choice in their ability to kill and reduce microorganism growth in building floods. The improperuse of antimicrobial disinfectants may cause health impairments to employees and building occupants. See Antiseptics Disinfectants

Antique
An object of sufficient age or style that represents itself as being an antique. Some antiques must be more than 100 years of to be truly classified as an antique. If they are not they may be classified as heirloom vintage or collectable. Adjuster Note All pieces in or near the damaged area must be itemized as being fragile or antique and all damage must be noted and documentedas soon as possible.

Antique Handling
Specific methods of handling and after a disaster requires the property owner to disclose and identify th eantique or content as having extraordianry or exceptional value. Contractor Liablity Note Antiques in water damged buildings must be identified and separated from all other contents and they are to be carefully handled and taken to a safe control area. Before handling items described to you as being collectable or antique a survey of the item is in water or sewage your log and inventory sheet must note the current condition of each item as it is before handling the item. Note that all chips scratches marks and missing pieces before picking up the piece including furniture. As important carefully evaluate each item for loose peices such as legs and backs or items which come apart such as back mirrors and table tops. Damaged antiques are seldom repaired back to an acceptable quality once damaged at least that is what some content owners report. See Antique Appraisal Collectable

Antiseptic
A substance that prevents the spread or inhibits the growth of microorganisms on animate surfaces such as skin.

Antiseptics
Most antiseptics are used to kill most skin microorganisms reducing the chance for infection on humans. Health Note Antiseptics are mild topical disinfectants they are not to be confused with building chemical-type disinfectants. Liability Note Antiseptics are to be given to employees who have sores wounds and scrapes allowing the employee to put on the antiseptic. Unless you are first aid trained I understand you cannot assist with the antisceptic application. Commonly used antispetics are rubbing alcohol IPA 3%u0025 hydrogen peroxide iodine.

AO-Zone
A designation by FEMA for the flood insurance zone for portions of the 100-year floodplain where flood depths are identified on Flood Insurance Rate Maps in feet above grade. AO-Zone water depths range from one to three feet.

Appraisal
An independent evaluation or estimate as to the value of an item or property. Appraisals may include the devaluation of an item or property from a loss as well as an estimate to bring the item or property back to its pre-loss damage. See Antique Antique Handling Collectables

Appropriate Technology
The application of knowledge and equipment in ways that best suit problem mitigation and problem solving.

Aqueous
Describing a liquid environment that is of or containing water a material solution in its water state such as paper during its process of being made into paper pulp or gypsum at the point it is being formed into drywall.

Aquifer
Typically a layer of earth below permeable rock that is of or containing water. Water Mitigation and Education Note In water damages an aquifer may be described as being a trapped void under subflooring such as a metal-pan under concrete in a high-rise building that is retaining water or metal stud walls that have the base plate full of water.

Arbritration Suit
Depending on the contract agreement or the agreement of the parties it is the binding resolution of disputes between all parties named in the dispute and settled by an independent arbritrator. Legal Note The abritration proceedings are less formal but they are as binding as a court of law. Arbritration often requires an independent appraisal of the issues surrounding the disagreement. See Appraisal

Aromatic
a One of two main main hydrocarbon compounds containing one or more benzine rings. Aromatic compounds are usually more difficult to decompose and they present a greater hazard to humans and the environmentat compared to aliphatic hydrocarbons. b Aromatics that apply to a group of hydrocarbons and their derivatives which are characterized by the presence of the benzine nucleus molecular ring structure.

Arrestance
A filter medias ability to remove a coarse dust particle.

Artifactual Influences
An adjective that best describes some compounds materials and agents or a process that is made by humans or influenced by human activity.

As Needed or As Required
a An indefinite term used when quantities or services cannot be fully agreed or determined based on the conditions present at this time. b As Required or As Necessary is an indefinite term used throughout the job to state that when necessary certain actions will be preformed or certain actions will be required to complete a specific task once the task has been identified then it will be completed. See Open Item

Asbestos
A family of silicate minerals that are non-conductive to heat and electricity. The minerals have been used extensively in insulating materials including insulation acoustic tiles and ceilings. Asbestos is a good insulator but friable asbestos has been known to cause illness and death. Health and Safety Note Damaging asbestos containing materials ACM from fire and water may result in some of the mineral fibres becoming airborne and friable. Mitigation Note a Remediation contractors may be required to test fior the presence of ACM. If asbestos is suspected air movement must be restricted and HEPA filtered negative air equipment must be properly installed. b Asbestos requires sampling and testing to confirm the materials actually contain asnestos. depending on the amout of ACM to be removed a licensed asbestos abatement company will need to be hired.



Ascospores
Fungi spores which produce an ascus an elongated sac or cell in which spores of ascomycetes are formed. The largest class of fungi typically found in soil nutrient rich farm field marine and fresh water. The majority of ascospores are common saprophytes that are found on decaying plant debris. See Basidiospores

ASCR International
The Association of Specialists in Cleaning and Restoration International. ASCR incorporates membership divisions in fire damage water damage mechanical hygiene cleaning to fabric cleaning and care management. The internationaly recognised organisation has membership in many countries. Depending on the needs of its meebership ASCR provides technical professional and educational support. ASCR International 10830 Annapolis Junction Road Suite 312 Annapolis Junction MD 20701-1120 USA. Telephone 301/604-4411 inthe US and Canada 800/272-7012 Fax 301/604-4713 E-mail info@ascr.org Internet ascr.org

Asepsis
Methods of treatment as in the removal and destruction of disease causing organisms in an infected material. Mitigation Note In sewage damage mitigation asepsis includes the protection of workers and the buildings environment during gross clean up through and after the final sanitization phase.

Aseptic
Mitigation Note In water and sewage damaged buildings aseptic is the treatment means after clean up where the building is made free of harmful disease causing organisms including fungi bacteria and viruses. To have an aseptic condition it first requires methods of treatment labour equipment and chemicals to eliminate all potentially toxic and infectious microorganisms.

Aseptic Conscience Image
A heightened awareness by mitigation workers that is developed through training maintaining appropriate health and safety at the cleanup job at all times while enforcing appropriate sanitary procedures. Aseptic conscience image includes addressing contaminated areas and non-contaminated areas and providing appropriate steps to keep them separate. Mitigation Note Surprisingly and unknowing to most black water sewage mitigation workers for example the field of contamination amplifies and becomes larger as the cleanup progresses. This comes from dragging in and removing equipment walking on to non-contaminated surfaces moving contents sitting in sewage to clean or less contaminates areas The removal of sewage saturated carpet and pad the removal of sewage effected drywall and insulation to the installation of airmovers before all contamination of infected building materials have either been removed or have been made aseptic resulting in aerosolizing sewage bacteria throughout the building environment.

Aspect Radio
Ratio At air distribution outlets the ratio of the length of the core opening of a grill face or register to the width. In rectangular ducts the ratio of the width to the depth.

Aspergilliosis Brocho-Pulmonary Allergy ABPA
An immunologic hypersensitivity reaction in the bronchi caused by colonization of sputum of patients with Aspergillus fumigatus. The inflammatory reaction may recur and progress over years to result in destruction of the bronchi and fibrosis of pulmonary tissue.

Aspergilliosis Brocho-Pulmonary Fungosis ABPF
A syndrome similar to ABPA in which the fungal organisms are not Aspergillus fumigatus. ABPF is far less common than ABPA

Aspergillosis
A disease from the Aspergillus fungus genus a fungi found in wet-damp buildings. Health Note Persons who are susceptible are those whose immune system are compromised they are on immune-suppressive medication are less than six or over sixty pregnant or had recent operations should not be around aspergillus spores. Sickness can result in the disease Aspergillosis. It is a known carcinogen.

Asphyxiant
A substance or chemical causing suffocation by removal or exclusion of oxygen preventing oxygen absorption or preventing oxygen use in the tissues.

Asphyxiating Atmospheres
An atmosphere which a chemical or other substance can absorb the oxygen in air as a result of a chemical reaction or other reaction including gases that make the atmosphere inert consuming the breathable oxygen. Health and Safety Note Chemicals used to mist and fog in the atmosphere chemicals that are allowed to evaporate and the use of ozone are asphyxiants. As dangerous and seldom recognized as an asphyxiant are power generators giving off carbon monoxide gas. See Confined Space Permit Required Confined Space Toxic Air Contaminates

Assessor
Usually appointed by the insured and works on a commission basis

Assimilative Capacity
The ability of air water or soil to effectively degrade decompose or disperse chemical or biological substances. Mitigation Note As in the case of sewage saturation in soil under a building the rate of introduction of the sewage pollutants to the soil may exceed the rate at which the soil can assimilate all of the sewage and effluent matter. Health Note If the substructure soil cannot assimilate and decompose the sewage matter through bioaugmentation in situ adverse health effects may occur to human health of the building occupants.

Asthma
A combining force of reoccurring episodes of exposure resulting in wheezing and coughing and laboured breathing. The episodes are often related to or precipitated by inhalation of allergens pollutants dander molds dusts infections cold air or vigorous exercise. Repeat attacks of asthma can result in permanent lung and bronchi damage.

Athletes Foot
A fungus called Tinea pedis resulting in a fungal disease called dermatophytosis. Personal Hygiene Note Water damage technicians who allow their feet to stay damp or have skin cracks are more susceptible to athletes fungi. The athlete fungi Tinea pedis can be an occupational exposure hazard and disease. See Tinea

Atmosphere in Buildings
The ambient atmosphere containing temperature humidity gases and particulates that engulf and make up the indoor regions of the building including wall floor and ceiling spaces.

Atmospheric Conditions
Based on ASTM standards atmospheric testing conditions are those atmospheres having a moisture equilibrium of 65 %u0025 Rh +/- 2%u0025 and temperature of 70 degrees F +/- 2%u0025 or 21 degrees C +/- 1%u0025.

Atmospheric Hazards
Atmospheric hazards are any airborne hazard in air. Health and Safety Note Most atmospheric hazards are inhalation hazards but atmospheric hazards are airborne ingestion and skin absorption hazards radiation flammable gas vapor mist chemical and atmospheric explosion hazards. Atmospheric hazards include too much or too little oxygen in air and airborne pollutants that are easily inhaled.

Atmospheric Pressure
The pressure exerted in all directions by the atmosphere. At sea level mean atmospheric pressure is 29.92 inches Hg 14.7 psi 407 inches w.g. or 760 mm Hg.

Atmospheric Stability of a Building
An expression of the air and environmental influences exerted on the building throughout the day. Atmospheric stability includes variance in air pressure thermal changes occupancy use and dispersion and dilution of airborne contaminates.

Atmospheric Testing
In confined space entry it is the testing and continuous monitoring of an air space before and during confined space entry. Testing and monitoring includes oxygen levels and the presence of different gases which mainly are carbon monoxide carbon dioxide flammable explosives methane and hydrogen sulfide.

Atomizer
A machine that is used to produce a fine spray or mist from a liquid. a Atomizers are used in fire damage mitigation of damaged building and the application of deodorants. b Atomizer are used in the treatment and control of malodor producing substances such as from a water damage or sewage contamination.

ATP Adenosine Triphosphate
A scientific method of determining a real-time qualitative number of organic matter present on a surface. ATP is an organic matter screening method that uses bioluminescence as a marker as to the biological activity including dead and decaying cells on a surface. A trained specialist must always use a clean control surface of like kind measured against the qualitative meaurements of a potentially contaminated surface.

Attached Ground
1 That portion of ground which is physically attached to the base and bottom of a building. Mitigation Note 2 Engineered ground which is stable through compaction excavation or shoring. 3 Ground which was designed to meet a specific density and load-bearing capacities. See Compacted Soil Contaminated Ground Soil

Attendant
In confined space it is the third or fourth employee who must be stationed outside the permitted space who monitors the authorized entrants inside the permit required confined space.

Attendant Duties
In reference to confined work spaces Education Note In confined space entry besides monitoring the confined space with electronic monitoring equipment the attendant must know and be able to recognize the hazards that are a potential or that may be faced during entry be aware of the possible effects of hazard exposure in authorised entrants keep track of all authorised entrants in the permitted work space and make sure the names of the entrants listed on the entry permit match and accurately identify the employees in the confined space remained stationed outside the permit space at all times during entry until the attendant is relieved by another qualified attendant communicate with authorized entrants to monitor their status and to alert entrants if they must leave evacuate the permit space the attendant should have current first air and CPR certification if there is an emergency the attendant must know how to immediately call for aid and assistance without leaving the post. See Entry Supervisor

Attenuation
The sound reduction process in which sound energy is absorbed or diminished in intensity as the result of energy conversation from sound to motion or heat.

Attic
An upper area of a building or space below the roof line. Mitigation Note In water damage mitigation of highly humid atmospheres an attic can receive exceptionally high amounts of trapped humidity and condensation due to temperature gradients from within the building.

attributable Risk
The incremental risk increase of an individual who previously experienced an exposure or health effect that can be assigned to a particular contaminate source or activity.

Authorisation
Verbal or written permission given to preform a certain action or task. Contractor Note Verbal authorization is acceptable by phone for an emergency or scheduled response but written authorization must be acquired to actually provide the service. Along with the written authorisation the contractor must state in the agreement that these are the terms and conditions which the contractor agrees to preform the tasks as well as terms and conditions for payment. As part of the payment agreement the contractor must provide an estimate and acceptance of the estimate before the services can begin. In an emergency situation the authorisation to proceed must be accompanied by a price list of services equipment rental and labour attached as an addendum to the agreement.

Autogenic Exposures
Endogenous in nature. Microbial contamination arising from the increase of internal microbial populations from within the building. Such increases in microbial population may be a result of uncleaned ventilation systems and water leaks including roof leaks and broken water pipes. See Allogenic Exposures

Automatic Floor Scrubber
A self-contained and often self-powered vinyl floor and hard surface cleaning machine. Education Note An automatic floor scrubber can be used with multiple floor scrubbing/cleaning disks brushes or pads that dispenses cleaning solution scrubs the floor and takes up the spent solution in one singe operation. The automatic floor scrubbing process on completion is meant to leave the floor clean and dry. While many automatic floor scrubbers are designed to walk behind the machine while using electric AC/DC power some automatic floor scrubbers are large enough to sit in and drive and are propane powered. See Floor Scrubber High-speed Buffer

Awl
A tool common to carpet layers. Mitigation Note An awl is also a common tool for water technicians during the pull-up of the corner of wet carpets and releasing the carpet from a tack strip. Health and Safety Note An awl is always to be used during the disengagement of sewage contaminated carpets from tackstrips. Tack-less strips or tackstrips that are contaminated with sewage can result in puncture and cuts causing illness and disease.

Axial Fans
Tubular airflow fans that support flexible ducting. The fan consists of propeller-like blades rotating perpendicular to the flow of the general air stream. Axial fans are usually exhaust fans often containing contaminated air that must be directed to an outside source but axial fans properly used can be directed to pressurize atmospheres in buildings or zones.


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