Disaster Advice
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Disaster Advice Disaster Advice Disaster Advice
Disaster Advice
Disaster Advice
Disaster recovery and restoration can be veiled in mystery to the many who have not undertaken specific training. This glossary explains technical terms to assist both report writing and the understanding of those technical terms so often misunderstood.


The Disaster Advice Glossary and its contents are the protected copyright of Disaster Advice


The perception of a foul odor or a stench when apparently none exists. In some instances the condition results from psychological factors as in olfactory hallucinations. As related to cacesthesia this is any morbid feeling or disordered sensibility which may be present potentially from a building having altered environments and smells. These types of buildings need to be investigated thoroughly in attempting to separate actual fact from perceived fact. See Artifactual Influences Heightened Awareness Perceived Risk Sensitization Sensory Perception


Calcium Chloride test KitCalibration Equpment

A manufactured test kit that scientifically measures and calculates the amount of moisture as water vapour emitting from concrete at any one time. The value expressed by the test kit are a measurement of pounds of water as moisture vapor from 1000 square foot of concrete slab surface area over a 24 hour period of time. The test is an ASTM approved method. Liability and Litigation Note Surprisingly most test kits and test results can be challenged in court because the person applying the test kit has not been properly trained to apply the kit they wrongfully computed the results or they were not taking other environmental factors into consideration at the time of testing.


Calibration Equipment

The use of specially engineered scientific equipment that independently calibrates field use equipment to an acceptable standard before testing or sampling. Education Note In water damage mitigation usually the only electronic equipment requiring calibration are the temperature and humidity monitoring equipment. These pieces of pre-calibrated electronic equipment are sensitive to wet atmospheres dropping and being treated with little care or concern for their intended use. Temperature and humidity equipment should be measured against each others readings. If either piece of equipment indicates a variance of more than 3%u0025 then both pieces of equipment should be measured against a third. If there is a problem with any of the temperature and humidity recording equipment readings they then should be removed from the field and sent to the manufacture.



The tendency of the surface of a liquid to rise or fall when in contact with a solid material.


Capillary Action

In water damaged buildings capillary action is the rate which a building material or content can absorb hold and retain water. Contractor Note Capillary action increases as surface tension decreases. The capillary action phenomenon is explained by the movement of water in absorptive materials to levels higher than the surface water or wetness. See Wicking


Capillary Attraction

The force of a liquid to rise when in contact with a porous substance. The force of adhesion and surface tension allows a substance to soak up a liquid.


Capillary Break

A method of stopping capillary action at a certain point or action area from continuing. For example in water damage buildings a capillary break is a method which concrete slabs are dried in sections. Mitigation and Restorative Drying Note When rubber backed carpet tiles are dried in situ the wet carpet tiles need to be pulled up having no less than 3 three rows removed exposing the wet concrete slab. Once the wet concrete slab and floor tiles have been dried only two of the three rows of carpet tiles are to be reset back in place. The third row of carpet tiles and exposed concrete slab are to remain open resulting in a capillary break in the transition layer of the concrete. Then another two or three rows of wet tiles can be pulled back and the carpet and concrete dried. Properly completed this method of providing drying to wet concrete and carpet tiles using a capillary break method is only a two phase process completed in an average of three-five drying days. See Transition Layer


Capillary Fringe

That area between materials having a dry mass and a wet mass materials having gradients effected by humidity temperature and moisture or materials having different permeability. Often drapes and wall paper water mark staining the capillary fringe where capillary action stopped. Education Note In a water damaged building a capillary fringe may exist be two different materials such as wet drywall and a vinyl cove base. The porous drywall retains moisture while the vinyl cove base repulses moisture.


Capillary Repulsion

The force that causes a liquid to be depressed when in contact with non-porous materials.


Carbon Dioxide CO2

Normal exhaled gaseous constituents which are the product of aerobic respiration and decomposition that are odourless and colourless. High carbon dioxide levels are a byproduct of human activity in a building having poor air circulation and ventilation. Health and Safety Note Although carbon dioxide is mostly not poisonous carbon dioxide can cause suffocation. The acid-base balance of the body is affected by the level of carbon dioxide in the blood and other tissues. Ideal carbon dioxide levels in tight building are less than 1000 ppm. Carbon dioxide levels greater than 5000 ppm should bring about an immediate corrective action by department managers and management.


Carbon Filtration

The use of carbon and activated carbon filters to remove gases chemical vapours toxic and hydrocarbons from air. Carbon filtration is a control method only since it cannot address the source of the contamination.


Carbon Monoxide

An odourless colourless and tasteless poisonous gas made when carbon or other fuel is burned as in gasoline engines. It is a poison air contaminate produced by incomplete combustion and it can be extremely harmful to humans and animals. Carbon monoxide will attach to red blood cells. This prevents the blood from moving oxygen from the lungs to the body tissues.


Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

A carbon monoxide poisoning resulting in illness and death of persons from exposure to carbon monoxide gas. Health and Safety Note In water damages floor furnaces are at and below floor level and appliances with gas ignition are near floor level they are able to rust in the presence of flood waters and high humidity. Rust will cause gas appliances to have incomplete combustion they are suspect of being a source of chronic health concerns which are seldom identified.



The combination of carbon monoxide gas and blood hemoglobin that result in blood poisoning.



Any chemical or biological substance that can cause abnormal growth of tissue or tumors in humans and animals.


Care Custody or Control Coverage

An insurance policy or rider which provides protection for restoration repair and replacement of property due to faulty workmanship. This includes the property of others while actually being serviced. Under the standard general liability insurance policy damage to the personal property of others in your care custody or control is excluded. This means that if property is damaged while being serviced there is no protection or insurance coverage under a standard policy. Care custody or control insurance coverage may be offered only through a special endorsement to the standard policy. See General Liability Insurance Coverage



A fabric material that is generally placed on floors for comfort and appearance and sometimes on walls for reduction of sound. Carpets as a floorcovering has a limited life expectancy from 7 to 15 years. Usually carpets are replaced before the end of their life expectancy with an average carpet having from 5 to 10 years life-use. Commercial carpets are different than residential carpets both in construction and use. Care and Handling Note Carpets must be cleaned and sanitized when they are dirty like any fabric. Proper cleaning techniques can extend the life of most carpets. Water Damage Note Carpet in water damages act like a sponge and absorb and retain large amounts of water and sewage. Carpets if they are stable can be successfully cleaned and reinstalled after a fresh water flood but carpets having sewage should be replaced. Totally saturated carpets if possible should be removed from a building since most subfloors and walls will also be saturated. Wet carpet retains sometimes hundreds of gallons of water increasing its wet weight from its dry weight up to five times. Restorative Drying Note Attempting to dry wet carpet in a building where walls and subfloors are also wet dramatically increases the overall drying time.


Carpet Cushion

An underlayment material that is placed under a carpet. Education Note The cushion acts like a pad in that the cushion softens the carpet while protecting the face fibers and secondary backing of the carpet. A good carpet cushion adds life to a carpet especially in high traffic areas. Restorative Drying Note After a major flood the carpet cushion should be removed to aid in the immediate drying of the building then if the carpet is still in place removal of the cushion will aid in the drying of the carpet. The problem with drying a building with carpet cushion and/or carpet remains in place are these saturated materials increase the drying time of the building as well as they increase the ambient humidity as long as they remain wet. Litigation Health and Safety Note Drying carpet cushion and carpet in place may result in unwanted mold growth and increase allergens. All sewage saturated carpet cushion must be carefully removed and disposed. Leaving sewage contaminated carpet cushion in place has been known to result in sickness and illness.


Carpet Cushion Grafted Prime Polyurethane

Flexible polyurethane foam cushion formulated with added reinforcement for increased load-bearing.


Carpet Cushion Bonded Polyurethane

Carpet cushion produced by grinding flexible polyurethane foam into small particles and binding them together with a chemical adhesive.


Carpet Cushion Compressed Force Deflection

The measurement of polyurethane carpet cushions load-bearing characteristics. The result shows the reaction to loading applied over time such as when a person stands on it.


Carpet Cushion Compressed Resistance

The measurement of rubber cushions load-bearing characteristics. This indicates the products response to immediate loading such as that experienced when it is stepped upon.


Carpet Cushion Flat Rubber

The natural or synthetic rubber cushion having a flat finished appearance on both sides.


Carpet Cushion Mechanical Frothed

Cushion made from polyurethane chemicals and reinforcing filler frothed with air into the reacting mixture.


Carpet Cushion Reinforced Rubber

An open-cell rubber cushion reinforced with solid rubber particles usually made from recycled tires.


Carpet Cushion Resinated Recycled Textile Fibre

A needle-punched synthetic fibre that is recycled from the textile processes.


carpet Cushion Rippled Rubber

Natural or synthetic rubber cushion produced to give an appearance of bubbles on the surface and usually containing non-woven or paper scrim on the top side.


Carpet Cushion Rubberized Hair

Needle-punched felt of clean sterilized natural fibre coated with skid-proof resin on top and bottom.


Carpet Cushion Rubberized Jute

Needle-punched felt or jute fibre sealed on both sides with filled latex and embossed.


Carpet Cushion Synthetic Fibres

Non-woven needle-punched felt made principally of post-industrial scrap synthetic carpet material with no outside adhesives.


Carpet Cushion Textured Rubber

Natural or synthetic rubber cushion produced with a fine textured appearance on the bottom and non-woven or paper backing on the top.


Carpet Fibre Terms

The description of terms that are commonly used during the purchase replacement or repair of a carpet. See Stain Resistance


Carpet Roller

A rolling tool weighing from 35 to 50 pounds and up to 100 pounds that aids the adhesion of carpet and mastic adhesives to bond with a subfloor. Water Damage Note Carpet rollers are also used on water damaged carpets where especially gluedown carpets are squeezed-out of the excess moisture. See Compression Rolling


Carrier Gas

When air quality and air pathways are an issue in contaminated buildings industrial hygienists sometimes use a mixture of visible gas that will travel in cross-current pathways of the building area or zone. The mixture of gases which contains and moves the contaminant material. Components of the carrier gas are not considered to cause or produce air pollution or react with the contaminant material.



The actions necessary to remove or deliver materials from one location to another. Contractor Note Cartage is a billable charge when labour material handling equipment storage bailee insurance and where relocation of contents or building materials are involved. See Bailee Insurance


CAS Number

An abbreviation for the Chemical Abstract Service number of a chemical that indexes it and compiles abstracts about it in the worldwide chemical literature called Chemical Abstracts. CAS Number can be found on the side of chemical containers or on the MSDS.


CAT Catastrohe Adjusting Team

The term given by the Property Claim Services section of the American Insurance Association to property loss adjusters who adjust and settle catastrophes. CAT adjusters are called when losses from a single event or catastrophe totals more than 5 million dollars.


CAT Containment Adsorption and Treatment

An acronym describing concepts of what steps are necessary in chronology in mitigating water damaged properties properly. The three-step concept is 1 containment of migrating flood water 2 adsorption/extraction and surface removal and 3 treatment the cleanup including sanitization. Restorative Drying Note The CAT concept is required in building damage remediation before restorative drying can be implemented appropriately. In major losses the CAT concept and the restorative drying process often become overlapped at some point.


CAT Contractors

Disaster management and disaster recovery contractors whose job is to manage and mitigate emergency loss CAT claims.



The process and procedure by which an adhesive material as a sealer is applied to the corners of a surface. The caulking may be applied on all adjoining areas of two or more materials or as a surface bead.


Cause and Origin

The exact location and mechanism by which a fire or water damage originated. Legal and Liability Note The remediation contractor %u0027must teach%u0027 every emergency response technicians to look think and don%u0027t touch or remove or further damage water or fire damaged areas related to cause and origin without being instructed to do so and signed-off by a responsible party. The issue of removing or further damaging cause and origin without proper documentation can result in direct liability to the contractor or a company representative. Smith v. Supreme Court - reference punitive damage of wilfully throwing evidence away and failure to act with reasonable care meaning you cannot damage or throw evidence away and Howe v. Matag destruction of evidence poilage%u0027 or the poilation of evidence%u0027. All responsible parties claimant and defendant adjusters manufacturers forensic experts to attorneys must be allowed to investigate damaged property and determine the cause and origin. Before attempting some types of emergency clean-up the contractor must have paper work signed-off saying they are being allowed to remove all damaged areas including cause and origin. Other wise the contractor must limit their damage assessment and emergency clean-up to the best and most appropriate damage control methods. In fire damage no contractor is to remove cause and origin without all parties including fire investigators agreeing that they have fully investigated the claim and they have removed or documented cause and origin to their satisfaction.



Any substance that is strong enough to damage or destroy tissue on human skin or corrosive enough to damage a material.



An English/Spanish sign denoting the need for caution. Education Note Caution and Caution Do Not Enter signs must be posted at every entry and exit of a building or area requiring the signs. Below the caution word must be sufficient space to write and describe the causation or reasons for Do Not Enter. In addition your company name and a contact name with phone number must be on the sign. Once posted caution signs must be dated with a start date and end date of the caution. See Confined Space Isolation Permit Required Confined Space Entry


Ceiling Limit C

The concentration of toxic chemicals vapours and mists in a work environment or closure that should never be exceeded.


Ceiling Outlet

A round square rectangular or linear air diffuser located in the ceiling which provides a horizontal distribution pattern of primary and secondary air. The ceiling outlet is usually found over the occupied zone and induces low velocity secondary air motion through the occupied zone.


Ceiling Plenum

The air space between a ceiling and another floor or roof which acts as a return air conveyance system of the HVAC. The ceiling plenum is to be kept under negative air pressure and all return air must be filtered before its return back through the supply ventilation air ducts.


Centre for Advanced Restorative Drying

A teaching and certification school that teaches adjusters and contractors real-time drying restorative methods and drying research in a working classroom and wet building environment. Contact Dri-Eaz at 800/932-3030 or www.dri-eaz.com


Ceramic Tile

Ceramic tiles are made of clay fired and baked in a kiln having a glaze finish. Ceramic tiles are permanently attached to floors and some walls and ceilings as well as on counter tops. The glaze finish of ceramic tiles are a moisture-resistant surface which is very durable under most conditions. Ceramic tiles are adhered with a mastic or mortar and filled between the tiles with a cement or synthetic coloured grout. Education Note Ceramic tiles stand-up very well in water damage situations but when fresh water or sewage water entrains under the tiles through an underlayment or from saturation moisture wicks up from a lower substrate resulting in the adhesion of some tiles to become loose causing in the eventual cracking and damage to some tiles. Mitigation Note Kitchen ceramic tile counters having tile as part of the backsplash the tiles may be in good condition but when the lower counter is damaged requiring detaching repair or replacement of the counter or the subfloor the ceramic tiles are almost always damaged during the counter removal.


Ceratocystis Ophiostoma

A common fungi found on cut green pine wood wet wood in lumbar yards and new wood in buildings. Lumbar yard fungi when viable produces a bluish color staining and when dormant or dead is black in color. Ceratocystis ophiostoma grows on the vascular surface of cut wood but it does not damage or cause deterioration to the lignins of the wood. Ceratosystis ophiostoma fungi likes new sap from freshly cut wood. See Lumber Yard Mold


CERCLA Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act

CERCLA is also known as the Superfund Act. CERCLA regulations and mandates do not generally apply in a water damaged building scenario but CERCLA may apply when waste water drainage and run-off at a work site are allowed to leave a site and enter into near by storm drains. Contractors who are fire damage restorers must become informed about CERCLA and RCRA when chemicals are at a burn site or run-off is allowed outside a property or berm. General Liability Note Contractors improperly cleaning up a damage site or found illegally disposing of chemicals may be in violation of CERCLA or RCRA. See RCRA


Certificate of Satisfaction

A to be signed document presented by the contractor to the customer or insured which states the contractor has completed all work as agreed and to the satisfaction of the customer or insured.


Certified Employee

An employee that has completed all of the requirements for training certification delineated in standards and approved training courses.


Certified Industrial Hygienist CIH

A person who possesses a bachelor of science or advanced degree in industrial hygiene engineering physics biology medicine or related physical and biological sciences who also has a minimum if three to five years full-time industrial hygiene experience. To have a CIH designation the person must be currently registered and recognized by the American Industrial Hygiene Association or other industry recognized industrial hygiene associations. See Industrial Hygienist


Certified Technician

An employee who has attained sufficient classroom and technical knowledge to pass an industry test about a particular trade. Education Note In water damage mitigation like in many other associations the water damage technician certification is only good for a period of time before it needs to be renewed. Not having re-education continuing education and renewal voids the water damage technician certification. See IICRC


Cesspool of Sewage

Referring to sewage contamination Education Note Liquid and decomposing waste found under substructures that has been accumulating there for weeks and months. The attached ground has become an underground sink and cistern disposal area it is undesirable and extremely unhealthy. Health Note Improperly cleaned up interiors of buildings having coliform bacteria are cesspools of sewage residing in occupant exposures.


CFM Cubic Feet per Minute

The volume of airflow calculated over one minute 60 seconds. Along with lift the measurement of cfm is one major method of determining vacuum efficiency.


Chain of Custody

A written document which transfers environmental samples from a field technician to a laboratory or materials from one party to another.


Chair Rail

A horizontal molding affixed to a wall equal to the height of the back side of a chair. A chair rail is designed to stop damage or marring to the wall surface by the back of a chair. Wall chair rails average from 36%u0022 to 44%u0022 from the floor height. Chair rails will sometimes have wood paneling or a wall paper lower covering. Chair rails having backing materials must be checked for unwanted moisture content after a water damage.


Change of State

Changes from a phase such as solid to a liquid a liquid to a gas or vapour or to another.


Change Order

A written document that results in the modification of an existing contract. A change order either removes adds or exchanges items in the contract for items or services. A change order spells out all the labour and material changes and revised contract prices.



The process of switching an air conditioning system from heating to cooling or vice versa.


Characterisation of a Biohazardous Substance

Any organism product material or biological agent that present a risk to humans. Health Note A biological material that threatens humans and their living and work environment. Illness and diseases which are known to be acquired through animal and human secretions or their by-products.


Characterisation of Hazardous Liquid Waste

Mitigation Note Under federal state and local law some waste and its constituents once identified are considered to be hazardous to breathe or when coming into physical contact with them. Health and Safety Note Hazardous waste can cause moderate to severe health effects in employees and occupants resulting in acute and chronic health concerns. ALL hazardous liquid waste must be properly identified contained and controlled and only professional trained and certified persons must be allowed to contain and remove hazardous liquid waste.


Characterizsation of a Hazardous Substance

Any chemical or agent that poses a threat to human health or the environment if released minor or in significant amounts depending on the chemical or agent.


Charged Particles

A particle which possesses at least one unit electrical charge and which will not disintegrate upon loss of charge. Charged particles are characterized by particle size number and sign of unit charges and mobility.


Checking of Paint

A phenomenon manifested by slight breaks in the surface of the paint film. Checking cracks can assume many patterns and they usually resemble a birds foot or small squares. Checking of paint is not fully understood but it is known to occur when paint is applied on a moist wood surface and the relative air is more dryer than the painted surface.


Checking of Wood

Cracking cubing or fractling of wood due to natural causes from water damages or a result of wood damage from some type of fungi resulting in a wood rot. See Cob Web Effect


Chemical Cartridge Respirator

A face-type mask usually of a butyl-rubber-latex configuration having one or two chemical cartridges. The face-piece respirator and cartridges must be appropriately donned and used for the type of contaminate known or suspected.


Chemical Release

Any spill or leak or detection of concentrations of chemicals of concern in the indoor environment or attached environments including the outside air to the building. Chemical release includes all chemicals sprays sealers disinfectants and deodorants used in a building after a loss.


Chemical Sensitivity

The acute or chronic sensitivity reaction to a chemical substance. Health and Safety Note Chemical sensitivity can be a result of adsorption from skin contact inhalation and ingestion. Chemical sensitivity may show itself as an allergic or asthma reaction swelling and redness on skin shortness of breath laboured breathing dizziness stomach ache and vomiting or a neurological disorder.


Chemical Sponge

A rubber cleaning sponge that has large cells capable of capturing dry particles from surfaces. As the rubber sponge is being applied on dry surfaces the surface cleaning action debrides the outer sponge layer exposing a cleaner surface area for additional cleaning. The chemical sponge picks up soot and captures smoke odor. Mitigation Note The name chemical sponge more commonly referred to by industry as a chem-sponge possesses no special chemicals in the sponge as the name suggests. As a rubber-type sponge it does not pick up or absorb water or chemicals easily and it should not be used for wet-side cleaning.


Chemicals of Concern

The specific compounds and their breakdown byproducts that are present suspected or documented. Identification of chemicals can be based on historical documents and material safety data sheets. If there is a potential release of chemicals identification requires monitoring of detected concentrations in the environment and a reasonable theory for exposure must be considered when evaluating for toxicity and increased and unacceptable risk.



A refrigeration machine that chills water the evaporator section of such a refrigerant machine.


Chip Board/Particle Board

Means those building materials that are made from wood chips glue and resin. Chip board/particle board are ASTM rated as a construction grade materials and are found as subfloors. Mitigation Note Once saturated with water or sewage these materials tend to swell and loose their efficiency as a stable building material. Once damaged the damaged section usually requires replacement. Large sections of saturation damage may result in the complete subfloor being replaced. Construction Safety Caution Improper removal of the chip board/particle board from second floors or above may cause a shift to the building frame more commonly referred to as racking. 97 UBC Section 2515 Chapter 23 2-B-1 %u002326.



The by-product of burning PVC and water and hydrochloric acid.



An infectious waterborne disease that is characterized by severe diarrhea and results in dehydration. Outbreaks are not common in first world countries but because of recent influence of third world persons living in the United States may now be residing in unsanitary living environments. Health Note Public health officials say exposure of a contaminated environment to water damage remediation employees from fecal matter and unsanitary living environments is a health concern even if Cholera is not present.



Long term exposures which over time will cause adverse health effects to buildings and individuals. Health and Safety Note Exposures to contaminated building environments over months or longer are known to result in permanent or long-lasting health impairments. See Acute


Chronic Effect

An adverse long-term exposure effect brought about from exposures to a chemical biological or toxic substance that develops slowly over a long period of time usually several weeks to years.


Citrus Cleaning

A solvent derived from the oils of citrus fruits. It is effective in cleaning virtually any oil-base soil or staining agent from a wide variety of surfaces. Education Note Citric cleaning is reported to be safe for use on most fabrics vinyls woods carpeting and metal. Advantages of citric cleaning besides cleaning efficiency the residue of the citric chemical leaves a pleasant fragrance of oranges lemons and limes. The cleaning process using citrus-base chemicals appears to be ideal in most cleanup situations involving fire and smoke residue. Liability Note Caution should be given when using citric-based cleaning and deodorizing chemicals since some persons may have a olfactory reaction to the residual fragrance of the citrus. It may be important to get the permission of the occupants as to the residual odor fragrance before use of any citrus-base cleaner is applied. See Limonene



A natural outside soilborne and airborne fungi. Cladosporium is also found in indoor air samples. Depending on the amount of Cladosporium in indoor air the industrial hygienist or microbiologist may consider the levels acceptable or potentially harmful. Wet building materials are known to heighten the Cladosporium fungi to unacceptable levels. See Fungi



The term clean means free from dirt grime bacteria pollutants and other contaminates which if not removed may be harmful to humans and animals.


Clean for Paint

An acceptable level of preparation of surface contaminate removal through cleaning that allows primers binders and top coats of paint finish to be applied successfully with no residue under-layer of pollutants to exist.


Cleaning and Sanitizing of Contents

Mitigation Note Means the removal of dirt debris and other contaminates from the surface of contents allowing the contents to be returned to a safe and clean condition


Cleaning by Maid Service

The steps necessary to dust vacuum surfaces and materials from general household and office related dusts dirt and other daily fallout of organic debris. Cleaning may include the removal of minor marks grit and other extraneous materials from floors and counters with cleaners and polish. See Damp Mopping


Cleaning for Restoration

The appropriate method of removal of surface and hidden contaminates and pollutants on hard surfaces semi-porous and porous materials before the material is allowed to experience reconditioning refurbishment or restorative processes. Mitigation Note For example a sewage contaminated fire damage pesticide contaminated tear-gas to meths clean-up is begun the materials must be appropriately cleaned and decontaminated before restoration is attempted. See Restorative Cleaning


Cleaning in Water damage

A method requiring one or more steps necessary to acquire a level of cleaning or cleanliness. Education Note In the water damage cleanup process cleaning refers to the removal of surface water contaminates and biopollutants and restoring the surface or surfaces back to their pre-loss healthy dry condition.



The act of surface cleaning and removing contaminates which sometimes is followed by sanitizing or disinfection. See Mitigation Sanitizing


Clean-up Goals

Acceptable methods which cleaning strives to attain.


Clean-up of Affected Building Materials

Mitigation Note Means In fresh water damage the immediate moisture removal and drying of buildings. In grey water and sewage flooding it is the immediate removal of water and effluents and the follow up cleaning and sanitization of all contaminated but salvageable materials. See Employee Protection Mitigation Remediation Water Damage


Clean-up of Construction Debris

The containment control and removal of all construction created waste in a building and at the job site. Cleanup of construction debris includes the removal of saw dust and wood chips in wall cavities off of flooring and the vacuuming of settled and migrated dusts. See Clean for Paint


Clean-up of Metal Studs and Sill Plates

means Mitigation Note In fresh water damage the removal of surface water followed by air drying of the metal studs and sill plates. Due Diligence Note In sewage damage the removal of sewage water and debris followed by surface scrubbing with detergents and warm water fresh water rinsing and disinfectant sanitizing. If sewage is in and under the metal sill plate low-pressure pressure washing of effluents %u005B60/90 PSI%u005D from under the sill plate followed with extraction. c The use of air movers for drying should only be used after surface cleaning and sanitizing.


Clean-up of Porous Concrete Slabs

Mitigation Note In fresh water damage the removal of surface water followed by air drying of the concrete slab. In sewage damage the removal of sewage water and debris followed by scrubbing the slab with an electric floor scrubber and stripping pad using detergents and warm water fresh water rinsing and disinfectant sanitizing. c The use of air movers for drying should only be used after surface cleaning and sanitizing.


Clean-up of Sewage

Clean-up of Sewage means the complete removal of waste water solids and associated bacteria from buildings and contents Mitigation Note Clean-up of sewage includes the complete removal of standing sewage from all non-porous and salvageable porous building materials. Health and Safety Note Clean-up of sewage should include the removal of sewage saturated building materials such as drywall and insulation underlayment carpet and pad. c Cleanup of sewage in children bedrooms should include the removal and disposal of effected clothes and toys and such items that are highly suspect or are questionable as to becoming cleaned and sanitized. d Clean-up of sewage in kitchens pantries and lower kitchen cabinets includes the removal and disposal of all perishable and open food. The cleaning and sanitizing of all sealed food related items. The cleaning and sanitizing of all shelves and cabinets after the kitchen pantry and lower cabinets have been cleaned and sanitized on all sides. e Clean-up of sewage under vanities cabinets and counters includes the detaching of built-on and built-in materials for the purpose of the cleanup of sewage on floors subfloors and wall cavities. Clean-up of sewage under vanities cabinets and counters also includes the cleaning and sanitizing of vanities cabinets and counters before they are reinstalled.


Clean-up of Wood Studs and Sill plates

means Mitigation Note In fresh water damage the removal of surface water followed by air drying of the wood studs and sill plates then checking with moisture sensors to determine the wood is dry below 15%u0025 moisture content before the wall cavity is closed. Due Diligence Note In sewage damage the removal of sewage water and debris followed by surface scrubbing with detergents and warm water fresh water rinsing and disinfectant sanitizing. If sewage is under the sill plate low-pressure use pressure washing of effluents from under the sill plate. c The use of air movers for drying should only be used after surface cleaning and sanitizing.


Clean-up Operations

A clean-up operation in a water or fire damaged building involves the containment removal and subsequent cleanup of contaminated or non-hazardous substances and materials. Hazardous Materials Management Note In hazardous materials management including black-water sewage mold which has been determined to be toxic or pathogenic or a chemical spill cleanup operations is an operation where hazardous substances are removed contained incinerated neutralized stabilized cleared-up or in any other manner processed or handled with the ultimate goal of making the site safer for people or the environment. Clean-up operations often call for continuous monitoring and site clearance testing.


Clean-up Options

Where possible an alternative but still acceptable method in achieving clean-up.


Clean-up Time

The amount of time necessary or predicted to achieve a clean-up goal. See Clean-up Goal


Clearance Sampling and Monitoring

After removal of a contamination from a building it is the testing using scientific methods to known acceptable standards of sampling and monitoring. See Verification Sampling


Clearance Swab Sampling

Clearance swab sampling is used for identification of any remaining coliform and enteropathogen-type bacteria remaining on a surface. Education Note Clearance surface sampling is only used after the successful cleanup of contaminated surfaces usually by a process of detergent cleaning and scrubbing followed by disinfectant sanitizing fresh water rinsing and drying. If the material surfaces are porous quite often the cleaning and sanitizing process requires a second application in the removal of Gram-negative cell structures. Clearance sampling of previously contaminate surfaces is more exact and sampling strategy and methods are quantitative. To provide for a quantitative bacteria clearance analysis of a previously contaminate surfaces a precise amount of swabs and sampling must be administered. To the lay person the number of sampling will increase several fold if not more depending on the surface type porosity occupancy and environmental factors. See Qualitative Swab Sample Screening Surface Screening for Coliform Bacteria


Client Right to Know

Legal Note In certain instances where flooding involves carcinogens pathogens aeroallergens toxins and other harmful agents electrical and gas hazards to slip and fall the water damage contractor as a person who has knowledge has a legal responsibility to disclose pertinent information to the client and unsuspecting persons who may enter a building or zone of contamination from building impairments may result in public health exposures.


Climate Controlled Environment

An energy efficient indoor environment in a tight building that controls temperature humidity air currents supply and exhaust air through electronically set and monitored equipment.


Closed Drying System

Restorative Drying Note In water damaged buildings a closed drying system is a complete drying of the building relying totally on dehumidification through engineering controls and not outside air. A closed drying system requires high amounts of air movement coupled with dehumidification. In restorative drying a closed drying system requires technical expertise and the appropriate drying equipment necessary to dry a wet building properly efficiently in a timely manner. See Best Conventional Control Technology



The completion and final end of a project. The critical barrier method used to seal-off an area or room.


Coastal High Hazard Area

That portion of a 100-year coastal floodplain that is subject to storms and storm-wind-driven-velocity waves of three feet or more in height. Coastal High Hazard Areas are designated as Zone-V on Flood Insurance Rate Maps.


Cob Web Effect

In painting cob webbing is the thin stringy paint surfaces having web-like particles which are brought about only from paint spray applications. The cob web effect is produced by premature drying or using incorrect thinner which results in a spider-like webbing effect.


Code of Federal Regulations CFR

The rules and regulations under U. S. Law that are published in the Federal Register. The codes which employers and employees are primarily concerned with are found in 29-CFR 1910. See Federal Register


Code of Federal Regulations CFR

The federal rules promulgated under U.S. law as published in the Federal Register to protect employees OSH and govern activities of chemicals and hazards EP in all states and territories.



A heating filtering or cooling element made of pipe or tubing.



Two or more insurance carriers insurers that have coverage on the same claim. Losses are allocated in proporation to the amount of coverage provided by each insurer.


Cold Deck

The cooling section of a multi-zone system includes cooling coils and duct.


Coliform Bacteria

Gram-negative bacteria that are short rod-shape that may form many chains. Included in harmful coliform bacteria is the well advertised deadly fecal bacteria called E. coli. Health and Mitigation Note In water damage remediation coliform bacteria are found in sewage and flood water coming into buildings. All coliform bacteria must be removed from a contaminated building. See Gram-Negative Bacteria Sewage Mitigation


Collateral Building Damage

Accompanying or associate building damage resulting from a direct or indirect relationship with the causation. See Consequential Building Damage Secondary Building Damage



Any object having value that is known to be collected by other persons. Contractor Note Some collectibles have little value while other collectibles have great value. In your review of a damaged residential structure it is important to ask the contents owner if they have collectibles%u003F If so would they mind removing them from the damaged building areas. More than one contractor has paid for damaged collectibles when in fact they may have already been damaged. See Antiques


Colony Count

A quantification counting of bacteria yeasts and fungi on a nutrient medium.


Colony Forming Units CFUs

The number of colonies on a laboratory agar plate after culturing.


Colorimetry Colorimetric

The term applied to all chemical analysis techniques involving reactions in which a colour is developed when a particular contaminant is present in the sample and reacts with the collection medium. The resultant variance of colour intensity is measured to determine the contaminant concentration.



The act or process of burning.


Comfort Chart

A chart showing effective temperatures with dry-bulb temperature and humidity measurements and air movement by which the effects of various air conditions on human comfort are compared.


Comfort Ventilation

The desirable range of airflow temperature humidity and odor in a building that allows for the comfort of the building occupants. Also called the comfort zone.


Comfort Zone

The average range of effective temperatures over which the majority 50%u0025 or more or adults feel comfortable extreme the range of effective temperatures over which one or more adults feel comfortable.


Commensal Bacteria

A symbiotic relationship between two or more bacteria organisms in which one organism lives in or on the other but not as a parasite thus leaving the other unaffected.


Commercial Buildings

Includes but is not limited to buildings such as industrial hospitals hotels factories offices churches wholesale residential structures having 5-floors or more and other non-residential buildings.


Commercial Sewage

Industry created sewage that is locally and state regulated. They are allowed to carry certain chemicals and agents after filtering and neutralization. Mitigation Note Commercial sewage is connected and is part of the same sewer system as residential sewers. Backup of residential toilets near industry which are down line can complicate the Category-3 sewage contamination clean-up. Chemicals and other hazards may exist. See Domestic Sewage Hospital Sewage Industrial Sewage


Commercial Size Dehumidifiers

Adjuster/Contractor and Restorative Drying Note Commercial size dehumidifiers are equipment capable of removing from 15 to 100 gallons of humidified moisture in air per day. See Desiccant Drying Psychometrics Refrigerant Drying Restorative Drying


Commercial Traffic

In commercial buildings commercial traffic refers to foot traffic on flooring the amount of people per hour or per day who travel within or across a given area.


Compacted Soil

The soil which was previously undisturbed earth and has been compacted by a machine to make the soil firm and dense sufficient enough to carry the weight of a building. Mitigation Note Once compacted the pad or ground must continue to maintain its purpose and design for the life of the building. Compacted soil becomes an integral part of the substructure now called attached ground to the bottom and base of a building. See Attached Ground Soil


Company Adjuster

An adjuster who is in the direct employment of an insurance company. See Independent Adjuster


Comparative Moisture Measurements

The comparison between dry building materials to wet or moist building materials. Restorative Drying Note In water damage remediation it is the measurement of moisture content of dry building materials verses building materials that are known or suspect of having unacceptable levels of moisture content during the drydown process. See Baseline Data Drydown Process Moisture Content


Competent Person

In referring to employees in potentially hazardous work environments OSHA defines a competent person as one who knows the hazards existing or likely to exist the competent person knows how to control or eliminate those hazards and that person has been given the authority to correct the hazards promptly and does so. Education Note In speaking with OSHA consultation and reading from safety bulletins such as produced by the American Society for Concrete Construction called Safety Alert %u002318 competent persons may be the most misunderstood and misused expression in company safety management programs. This assignment as the most competent person is usually given to first-line supervisors in most companies. In my own personal survey of 29 southern California water and fire damage remediation contractors who know me and trust our company they named their most competent person as a manager. Yet in almost all instances that competent person manager was not responsible for the interaction or teaching to employees the knowledge he or she has attained. OSHA is also concerned that the primary or most competent person is not on the jobs where accidents and injury occurs. The assignment as the companies designated competent person must be given to the front line hands-on managers who look out for the welfare of the employer and employees.


Completed Operations Coverage

An insurance policy or rider which provides protection after the contractor has completed a job. An example would be after cleaning or restoring a building and paint discoloration occurred after it dried because of hidden damage.


Components in Place

Building materials that are in place to structurally make up a building and a building system. Components in place are the main frame materials which integrate consolidate and unite a building structurally. See Main Frame



A substance composed of two or more elements joined together according to the laws of chemical combination. Each compound has its own characteristic properties different from those of its constituent elements.


Compression Rolling

The use of a weighted floor roller or drag wand to remove excess water from a carpeted surface during a water damage. See Carpet Roller Drag Wand



The pump which provides the pressure differential to cause fluids to flow. In the pumping process the compressor increases pressure of the refrigerant to the high side condition. The compressor is the separation between low side and high side.



An expression of how much dose of a material in a given amount can be absorbed by the human body without effecting the body or causing a reaction. Concentration of contaminates to humans or atmospheres is the amount of a contaminate in concentration. Education Note For example concentration of contaminates in water are expressed as the mass of a contaminant per given volume typically one liter of water or as the mass of a contaminant per given mass of water In the case of aerosols the concentrations of aerosols airborne solids and liquids in air are expressed as the mass of a substance in a given volume typically one cubic meter of air In the case of vapours and gases in a given volume of air equals volume/volume or the mass of a material per given volume of air equals mass/volume.



In an air conditioning unit water which has condensed from a vapour either on the outside of a cooling or dehumidifying coil or on the inside of a steam heating coil.



In an air conditioning unit the process of changing a vapour into liquid by extracting heat. Condensation of steam or water vapour is effected in either steam condensers or dehumidifying coils and the resulting collected water is called condensate.



The ability of water to change to water vapour when heat is increased and vise versa when water vapour changes to water when heat is lost. Restorative Drying Note In wet wall cavities for example water vapour can form and condense in the upper part of the wall cavity when outside sun heats the wall cavity as water droplets. This condition can also be found in high humid buildings on ceilings and in attics. See Evaporation



The heat exchanger in which the heat absorbed by the evaporator and some of the heat of compression introduced by the compressor are removed from the system. The gaseous refrigerant changes to a liquid again taking advantage of the relatively large heat transfer by the change of state in the condensing process.


Conditional Waiver %u0026 Lien Release

A Conditional Waiver %u0026 Lien Release document is a legal document which in brief says you as the general contractor of record are waiving some of your legal rights to a property where you and subcontractors and material suppliers that are under your direction and who performed labor services and/or delivered materials to the job at the address in question. Legal and Contractor Note The Conditional Waiver and Lien Release usually means that all of the payments to the project have not been paid and the debt owed to you and your subcontractors have not totally been satisfied at this point in time. Yet one or more parties to your billing or agreement wants you to sign-off on a Conditional Waiver %u0026 Lien Release form. Often Conditional Waiver %u0026 Release document become required when co-owners banks and other financial institutions are making the payments or are signing-off and releasing insurance drafts or other third parties who have an interest in the project. If you are a contractor you may not want to sign-off on Conditional Waiver %u0026 Lien Releases until you have talk to your attorney and they provide you with proper legal advise. See Unconditional Waiver and Lien Release Form


Confined Space

1 OSHA 29 CFR 1910.146 - Any space large enough and so configured that an employee can bodily enter and perform assigned work. In addition a confined space has limited or restricted means of entry or exit and is not designed for continuous employee occupancy. 2 Building environments and substructures which are known or potentially hazardous toxic or combustible. Health and Safety Note Any area or zone that meet standards of a confine space or permit required confined space employees shall not enter the environment without proper training safety and if necessary monitoring equipment. 30 CFR Part 11.90. See Entry Permit Permit Required Confined Space



Inflammation of the delicate mucous membrane that lines the eyelids and covers the exposed surface of the eyeball. Health and Safety Note Exposed water damage remediation workers and building occupants during the flood drying processes are susceptible in acquiring conjunctivitis especially when air movers are installed where dust spores and debris become aerosolized. See Contact Dermatitis Pink Eye Rhinitis


Consequential Building Damage

The building or property damage which does not arise as a direct result of the initial causation event but arises as a result of it. Losses which arise as an indirect result of the claim as distinct from the direct and immediate effects. Restorative Drying Note In water damage flooding into buildings for example consequential building damage may cause or be a result of secondary damage or contamination such as unwanted fungi growth due to the water damage claim. See Collateral Building Damage Secondary Building Damage


Constant Air Volume CAV

A supply air system that holds the air flow constant but it varies the supply air temperature to compensate for the thermal load in the conditioned space.


Construction Grade

A term commonly used to describe compacted soil building quality lumber and other materials based on specifications and standards.


Contact Dermatitis

Gases liquids and solids which are known to cause skin inflammation redness and swelling due to skin contact of an irritant substance. Allergists see this condition on their patients from skin contact with irritants and allergens. Medically contact dermatitis is referred to as Contact Sensitization. Health and Safety Note In water damage remediation contact dermatitis sensitization may result to a sensitized individual all sensitized individuals should not be in a water damaged building especially during the building drying contact with chemicals and contaminated building materials. See Conjunctivitis Contact Hazards Dermatitis Occupational Exposures Rhinitis


Contact Hazard

The hazards which are due to a physical or direct presence contact with a known or unknown hazard or substance. Health and Safety Note Contact hazards usually relate to contact hazard exposures to emergency response workers including water damage technicians who are jeopardized by contact with contaminated water vapour toxins and airborne substances. See Conjunctivitis Contact Dermatitis Dermatitis Occupational Exposures Rhinitis


Contact Time

The amount of %u0027dwell time%u0027 necessary for a cleaning agent a disinfectant or a sanitizer requires to have while maintaining maximum working efficiency before it is removed.


Containment Area

A designated area room or zone which is known to have a contaminate or pollutant that is purposely separated-off from all other contaminated or non-contaminated areas rooms or zones.


Containment Bins and Containment Storage

Portable but secured bins and storage units that are brought on the site of a job for the containment and control of building contents and often the equipment and supplies necessary to complete a particular job or phase. See Drums and Bins


Containment Containment Area

Any one of several acceptable methods for containing and controlling an environment atmosphere or a contaminate in.


Containment Phase

That portion of a job which is considered the set-up of containment equipment before a contaminate is removed and abated. That portion of a job which is referred to as the containment phase and removal of a contaminate or hazardous substance.


Containment Process

A method or process by which contaminates agents and pollutants are controlled managed regulated or are made inactive non-viable or friable.


Containment Room

A work room or an indoor environment which holds and contains a contaminate for either control or removal purposes.


Containment Unit Cleaning and Decontamination

Referring to fungi mitigation and remediation abatement a containment-unit are typically the critical barrier and equipment used during the removal of fungi contamination process. Cleaning and decontamination of the containment-unit refers to the appropriate methods necessary for the collection of all migrant and settled spores and other contaminates on and in the containment-unit. Education Note A containment-unit may include a second critical barrier containment-unit other than the primary critical barrier containment-unit which consists of a temporary built plastic room or plastic sealing off another room which then becomes plastic-sealed off from the primary contamination area. The secondary containment-unit maintains its own eparate%u0027 air pressure from the main contamination zone or area. The secondary containment-unit is a staging area where fungal contaminated building materials already plastic bagged are stored and are waiting removal from the building. The secondary containment-unit is the main entry and access between the outside and the main contamination zone or area as well as the exit and egress to the building. Mitigation Note Both the primary and secondary containment-units cleaning and decontamination requires a combination of surface HEPA vacuuming followed by surface cleaning using damp wiping with a minimum of water to remove settled and migrant dusts and spores before safely dismantling the containment-units. The remediation practitioners must carefully consider the necessity and advisability of applying biocides such as bleach when cleaning and sanitizing the containment-unit. The goal of the remediation program must be to remove all microbial growth that was part of the project and this includes the contamination migrant in the containment-unit. Caution Note The consulting industrial hygienist associated with the remediation project must consider the efficacy of all antimicrobial agents and their contact time and removal. Health and Safety Note Neither the primary remediation and abatement containment-unit or the secondary support entry and egress containment-unit can be used for employee rest and removal of PPE. Only exiting from both of the containment-units and after decontamination can removal of PPE be considered appropriate. See Critical Barrier during Fungal Abatement Full-scale Fungi Decontamination-Unit


Contaminated Building

A building that in the past or is currently experiencing physical harm to one or more of its parts and to its occupants from an exposure. See BRI SBS



The presence of a foreign substance which may or will result in and cause damage to the ground building contents and/or to the occupants of a building.



The personal belongings and property of a company family or individual contained within a building and possibly to contents outside a building as distinguished from the building itself for the purpose of insurance.


Contents Manipulation

It is the handling moving and repositioning furniture and other items in a business or a home during the course of providing emergency or restorative services.


Continuous Contamination

Ongoing contamination that has not been stopped mitigated or abated. Health Note Some continuous contamination concerns are from the apparent flood but continuous fungi contamination may go unnoticed eating away at the buildings integrity while compromising the health of its occupants.



An agreement between two parties who enter into an arrangement. The parties have a mutual understanding as to the services to be provided and the payments to be offered on completion of the contract. See Change Order



Any individual or company who agrees to take responsibility or money for the containment and mitigation of another persons property. Liability Note Not all states or insurers require water damage companies to carry a current contractor license. All states recognize that individuals and companies who engage in the practice of water damage mitigation are accountable and they are held liable for shoddy workmanship or incomplete work even if there was no signed contract.



In air conditioning a control is a device for regulation of a system or component in normal operation manual or automatic. If the controls are automatic the implication is that it is responsive to changes of pressure temperature or other property whose magnitude is to be regulated.


Control Areas

1 Building areas which were not contaminated or part of a damage and are not considered to be a health concern. 2 Control areas may be a good representation of the building IAQ. 3 Controls are considered as background areas for scientific study to determine what are normal-acceptable IAQ backgrounds of building materials or its environment. Education Note In flooded building environments a control area is a non-contaminated area where damaged contents and other materials can be placed and stored.


Control Diagram also called a Ladder Diagram

In air conditioning management and monitoring a control diagram shows the control scheme only. Power wiring are not typically indicated. The control items are shown between two vertical lines hence the name-ladder diagram.


Control Point

In air conditioning the value of the controlled variable which the controller operates to maintain.


Controlled Device

In air conditioning a person or electronic system which receives the converted signal from the transmission system and translates it into the appropriate action in the environmental system. For example a valve opens or closes to regulate fluid flow in the system.



In building HVAC management a electronic device which senses temperature and adjusts a damper or valve accordingly.



The transfer of building heat and cool air along with air currents that are moved from one place to another by circulation from the actual motion of different densities of warm and cool air in a building. The transfer of heat by natural air movement. See Air Movement Air Pathway Enthalpy


Cooling Coil

An arrangement of pipes or tubing which transfers heat from air to a refrigerant.


Cooling Effect Sensible

Difference between the total cooling effect and the dehumidifying effect.


Cooling Effect Total

Difference between the total enthalpy of the dry air and water vapor mixture entering the cooler per hour and the total enthalpy of the dry air and water vapour mixture leaving the cooler per hour expressed in watts Btuh.


Cooling Evaporative

Involves the adiabatic exchange of heat between air and water spray or wetted surface. The water assumes the wet-bulb temperature of the air which remains constant during its traverse of the exchanger.


Core Area

The total plane area of the portion of a grill face or register bounded by a line tangent to the outer opening through which air can pass. The core area is less than the register size. Example a 14%u0022X 8%u0022 register may have a core that is 1%u0022 less than the listed size therefore the core area is 13%u0022 X 7%u0022%u003D91 sq. in.



A counter-top surfacing material manufactured by Dupont. Corian counter tops are a hard plastic polymer that are thermoformed along with color pigments and resins into about any shape. The surface is durable and stain-resistant and is easy to clean. See Silestone


Corner Window

In the strict definition a window that literally wraps a corner of the building at right angles. In a more loose definition a window casement placed close to or next to the corner of the building.


Corrective Action

An action which usually must be applied or taken within a relatively short period of time to produce a specific or desired affect. OSHA Note Some corrective actions are meant to produce a safe work environment before workers are allowed to proceed safely. Health and Safety Note Other corrective actions such as a sewage cleanup must be completed to produce a safe work or living environment. Technical Note c In carpet and fabric cleaning a corrective action is removal of a stain such as a rust stain before it is allowed to set and permanently damage the fabric. Emergency Response Note Corrective action is the sequence of actions that include site assessment and investigation risk assessment response actions interim remedial action operation and maintenance of equipment monitoring of progress making no further action determinations and the act of terminating the remedial action.


Corrective Action Goals

The concentration or other numeric values physical condition or remedial action performance criteria that demonstrates that no further action is necessary to protect human health and the building.



The degradation deterioration and oxidation of metal concrete and other materials by chemical or electromagnetic change. Corrosion to a metal can be a result of contact with moisture resulting in its deterioration because of a reaction of a material to its environment. See Rusting


Cost Accounting

An actuarial method of computing costs of a job which breaks down labor material overhead including administrative costs and insurance and profit. See Best Xactimate


Cost Guide

A condensed version of a detailed building material or content valuation system. See Bluebook Means



In heat exchange between two fluids opposite direction of flow coldest portion of one meeting coldest portion of the other.


Coverage-A Dwelling

In insurance terms dwelling coverage typically include The construction materials and supplies during the time of construction Wall-to-wall carpet and other floor covering attached to the dwelling is part of the dwelling c Structural components and fixtures which are a permanent part of the dwelling.


Coverage-A Dwelling Exclusions

In insurance terms dwelling coverage typically exclude the land and the value of the land including land which the dwelling is located or the costs to restore replace repair or rebuild the land. If a covered loss causes damage to the dwelling and to the land on the residential premises the policy disallows coverage for any increased cost to repair the dwelling because of damage to the land.


Coverage-B Separate Structures

In insurance terms separate structures coverage typically includes other structures on the residential premises separate from the dwelling or connected to the dwelling by only a fence utility line pavement driveway patio or similar connection.


Coverage-B Separate Structures Exclusions

In insurance terms separate structures exclusion typically includes the land and the value of the land including land on which the separate structure is located or the costs to restore replace repair or rebuild land. If a covered loss causes damage to a separate structure and to the land on the residential premises the policy disallows coverage for any increased cost to repair or rebuild the separate structure because of damage to the land. In addition the policy does not cover separate structures which are intended for use in business or which are actually used in whole or in part for business purposes.


Coverage-C Personal Property

In insurance terms the insurance policy typically covers personal property owned or used by an insured while the contents are in the possession of the insured and personal property located on the insured property. In some personal property schedules the personal property may be protected any where in the world as long as the personal property can be shown to be owned and in possession of the insured at the time of a claim. Education Note Coverage for accidental direct physical loss to property contained in a building must usually be caused by one or more of the following events 1 Fire or lightening 2 Windstorm or hail Water damage if sudden or accidental Explosion Smoke if sudden or accidental Vandalism Theft. In each of the above named perils there can be limitations and exclusions.


Coverage-C Personal Property Exclusions

The exclusions to personal property typically include the personal property of others including but not limited to tenants guests relatives outside the immediate family members of the family over the age of 21 or family members under the age of 21 that do not reside on the property or in the dwelling of the insured The property of a residential employee while in the service of an insured c Motor vehicles or their parts aircraft and boats animals birds and fish d Personal property in an apartment on the residence premises which is regularly rented or held for rent to others by an insured.


Coverage-D Loss of Use

The limit of insurance for Coverage-D is the total limit for all of the following coverages 1 Additional Living Expense If a covered property loss makes the residential premises unfit to live in the policy typically covers the necessary increase in living expense incurred by the insured so that the insured can maintain their normal standard of living. The insurance policy typically pays for the shortest time needed to repair or replace the damaged property or permanently relocate but in no event for more than 12 months.


Crawl Space

The lower space of a raised foundation - between the ground and the first floor of a building. In a crawl space building code requires a minimum 18%u0022 aeration access from the ground and the floor joists. Any unfinished interior access and limited space between floors containing ventilation ducting pipes cables or wiring of the building. C A lower elevation of a building that has not been excavated deep enough for a basement.



A paint condition resulting in the shrinkage of a paint film or the drawing up of the paint film because of high moisture content or surface tension to form an uneven film. Crawling is sometimes caused by painting over cold wet damp or dirty or oily surfaces.



A condition resulting in the hairline cracking and the formation of a network of hairline cracks as a pattern on or under a finished surface such as plaster glazed ceramic paint or transparent finish. Crazing can be caused or become a result of various environmental factors including building movement temperature and humidity stress and water damages as well as improper material installation.


Critical Barrier During Fungal Abatement

A barrier usually made with two layers of 6-mm plastic polyethylene sheeting placed on ceiling walls and floor doors windows and other openings that creates an isolation barrier during fungal containment abatement and may be installed in the waste storage and support areas. Mitigation Note Critical barriers must block all openings fixtures HVAC and air pathways of the building to prevent the spread of dust dirt and spores beyond the containment-unit. The critical containment barriers must be constructed in such a manner so as to not disturb contaminated materials.



The carrying of a microorganism chemical or toxin from a contaminated area to a non-effected clean area. Health and Safety Note Typically cross-contamination is thought of as contaminates carried on objects including clothes and hands but cross-contamination also occurs in building air pathways and ventilation air streams where bacteria fungi yeasts and other aero-allergens easily travel through from an airborne route. In hospitals cross-contamination is referred to as nosocomial infections. See Fomites


Crown Molding

A non-weight bearing decorative molding installed at the junction of the ceiling and wall.



A condition brought about when previously wet and damp hardwood floors are sanded before they are fully dry.



An infection caused by inhaling the fungus Cryptococcus neoformans a soilborne fungus usually associated with pigeon feces. Cryptococcoses is known to cause meningitis. See Histoplasmosis capsulatum


Cubic Centimetre

A volumetric measurement of one cubic centimeter that is also equal to one millilitre mL.


Cubic Foot

A unit of measure that calculates three equal sides of a 12%u0022 wide x 12%u0022 long square times its 12%u0022 height that equals to 1-cubic foot or 1728 cubic inches. See Acre Foot Square Foot


Cubic Metre of Air

A metric volume of air that equals to 1000 liters or 35.31 cubic feet.


Cubic Yard

A U.S. unit of measurement that calculates three equal sides of a yard consisting of 3%u0027 x 3%u0027 x 3%u0027 or 27 cubic feet for 1 cubic yard. Soil and concrete are ordered in cubic yards.



Meaning living. Culturable fungi and bacteria are those organisms which can be removed from a surface or environment and sent to a laboratory for culturing and identification. See Non-Culturable Non-Viable Viable


Cultured marble

A man-made cast or molded material composed of grounded marble and colorants in a resin binder. Cultured marble are often used for sinks and counter tops.


Cumulative Risk and Exposure

Cumulative risk and exposure refers to the combined pathogenic toxic and carcinogenic risks from all exposure pathways for all chemicals toxics and biological agents. See Direct Exposure Pathways



A moisture condition resulting in the concave deformation of hardwood flooring caused by trapped moisture under the hardwood. Cupping is a condition resulting in warping of hardwood flooring across the grain of the wood. Mitigation Note Cupping sometimes is a temporary condition brought about from a water damage event which can be corrected through careful dehumidification from under the hardwood floor or sometime from above the hardwood floor. Cupping may naturally correct itself within 15-30 days as the floor reacclimatises to the dehumidified atmosphere. Cupping of hardwood floors directly placed over concrete slabs seldom are correctable.


Curtain Wall

An wall which does not carry a load such as an exterior facing window wall.



Another term for carpet and upholstery pad or underlayer.



Mitigation Note The term used in hazardous materials management where a person or contractor contracts to contain and remove regulated and non-regulated waste from a building or site. Depending on the waste the person or contractor must properly dispose of the waste to local state and federal regulations not doing so is a violation of law. A term used for contents where a contractor is removing them for safe keeping cleaning and sanitization.



In the energy of a building cycling is the turning on and off of systems for energy conservation that is done at predetermined intervals or when the energy usage is high.


Cyclone Effect

The air in a room which is forced through dynamic pressure to move in one direction. Mitigation Note In water damage mitigation it is the dynamic pressure of ambient air forced across wet walls in a room at about 45 degrees resulting in the release of moisture on wall materials and flooring. The cyclone effect winds moving around and towards the same direction causes turbidity air currents. See Advection Eddy Currents Dynamic Pressure Static Pressure Turbidity Air Currents


Cyclone Separator

A dust-collecting device which has the ability to separate particles by size. Typically used by industrial hygienists to collect indoor air or workplace respirable dust samples.


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