Disaster Advice
Disaster Advice Disaster Advice
Disaster Advice Disaster Advice Disaster Advice
Disaster Advice
Disaster Advice
Disaster recovery and restoration can be veiled in mystery to the many who have not undertaken specific training. This glossary explains technical terms to assist both report writing and the understanding of those technical terms so often misunderstood.


The Disaster Advice Glossary and its contents are the protected copyright of Disaster Advice


An insurance term typically meaning the methods requiring inventory boxing removal and temporary storage of contents from a damaged property. Education Note Some pack-outs are provided by office relocation companies whose job requires the removal and relocation of contents and equipment to temporary facilities until the damaged property can be restored back to pre-loss conditions. The pack-out in part is necessary to reduce business interruption. Other pack-outs are provided by a specialty contractor who is involved in fire damage restoration. In this situation the pack-out requires the contents to be removed cleaned and restored back to pre-loss conditions before they are returned to a restored property. See Business Interruption Coverage



See Carpet Cushion


Paint Grade Materials

Drywall plywood pine and other finish materials such as softwood and fiberboard baseboards that are not meant to be stain grade.


Pan Flooring

See Metal Pan Flooring


Paper Trail

The administrative record keeping of all job related documents and documentation. Contractor and Liability Note In a legal action the paper trail starts with company certifications and management training employee training general and liability insurance phone log customer emergency call-in log response logs equipment logs contracts and agreements change orders disclaimers photographs daily job logs subcontractor logs job related health and safety logs MSDS estimates and square foot measurements moisture measurements dehumidification monitoring and drydown waste disposal and dumping to customer proof of satisfaction forms.


PAPR Positive Air Pressure Respirators

Full-Face respirators which are positive air pressure fed from filtering canisters and a motor. The filtering canisters motor and battery are on a belt worn around the waist. The supply hose comes from the filter housing to the full-face mask. PAPR respirators are the preferred respirator required for certain contaminates and confined space work where heat-stress is a factor when working in Level-C or B PPE. Safety and Health Note PAPR respirators are only efficient if the appropriate filter canisters are in place%u0021 As a general filter canister rule consider using HEPA/Organic/Acid Gas-type filters. OSHA Note The contractor must provide the right filters relative to the contaminates involved. For H2S and SO2 only in-line air or SCBA can be used because H2S and SO2 elements are gases and filter canisters cannot screen out these gases. OSHA Note All atmospheres where flammable explosive air gases vapours mists and toxins are present or are suspected or the atmosphere may not contain appropriate breathable air or because of the work involved an employee may create an atmospheric hazard exceeding PM-10/50 proper monitoring and engineering controls must be implemented before employees can work in a hazardous environment.


Particulate Matter

A solid material that is a byproduct of construction waste which easily becomes airborne and can be inhaled. An airborne dust spore pollen or bioaerosol which can result in asthma and allergy-like conditions when inhaled. c A solid material that settled out of air which can easily become airborne through disturbance or increased air movement. d Particulate matter in water especially contaminated water while it is in a dissolved state. e When surface water is removed particulate matter constitutes the insoluble sand clay fines and other solid matter after an outdoor flood indoors or a blackwater sewage contamination from main-line sewer backflows. The former U.S. Surgeon General C. Everett Koop warns that every day the average persons respiratory system receives more than two table spoons of particulate matter dust pollen tar rubber acids metals smoke clutch and brake materials bacteria mould and many other hazardous and allergic matter.



Pathogens Disease causing microorganisms. Microorganisms including but not limited to viruses bacteria and fungi which have the capacity to cause disease under certain conditions. See Allergens



A natural aging process which over time allows oxidization and weathering to cover some finishes. Caution Note Disturbing the patina through cleaning and sanitizing of some building materials and contents may result in a permanent colour change and even damage to that material. Patina is common on brass and bronze statues sculpture paintings and porcelain. Patina may also be present on artifacts antiques and collectibles. The loss of patina can dramatically reduce the worth value of a particular item. See Diminished Property Value


Pattern Matching

The ability to matchsections of a wall or flooring material to manufacturer instructions that hide seams and match pattern runoffs.


Pattern Repeat

The repeat of a pattern of material that is distanced between any given point in a design or length to where that exact point in the pattern is repeated again.


Pattern Scribing

In flooring a method of fitting flooring material in small or complicated areas using scribing felt or some other paper that outlines the room and objects that are impeeding a continuous flat-lay of a material. Refer to Armstrong Guaranteed Installation Systems Handbook 2000/2001 @ 800/233-3823



In paint film terminology peeling refers to the delamination from the substrate or previous coat of paint that represents larger paint film pieces instead of paint flakes. In many instances peeling is due to trapped moisture found behind the painted surface. Also lack of surface preparation painting over salts mildew dirt oily surface chalking or over multiple layers of dried paint film will cause peeling.


Peer Review

Persons regarded as having the same experience knowledge and values in a particular subject to which they are held as industry leaders who are given the task to review documents and papers for presentation and publishing.



A word that is not in much use today to describe a site assessment and inspection. To perambulate you are walking around while examining and inspecting the perimeter of a building or property or walking through a large building while taking notes.


Perboric Acid

An acid used by itself or it may be found in some cleaning chemicals and powders. Education Note Perboric acid HBO3 forms salts called the perborates which when released in water produces a type of hydrogen peroxide. Perboric acid in water are short lived and to maintain their strength they must be used within a reasonable period of time. Sodium perborates are used in spotters and browning treatments and they produce a mild oxidizing effect.


Perceived Risk

A perception about potential risk by employees of their work environment. Safety and Health Note Perceived risks are most often unknown risks and they are recognized through mental awareness a heightened level of sensitivity an insight a sixth-sense or a mental observation about a particular circumstance we find ourselves in which we recognize as to be unsafe. Perceived risk are any potential risk that may be present during the assessment phase and including the demolition or the cleanup phase of a damaged building. OSHA Note OSHA considers all perceived risks to be real risks until they can be proven otherwise. The mitigation employee and their employer must take all appropriate safety corrective action including the use of PPE in protecting employees when there is a perception pertaining to a perceived risk.


Performance Bond

An insurance bond taken out by the contractor which protects and indemnifies the building owner in that the contractor will preform and meet all terms within the agreement or the building owner can seek redress by acting and invoking the bond once the contractor fails to preform as stipulated in the contract.


Performance Humidity Curve

A temperature and humidity graph depicting the performance of humidity from a water damage while in a buildings atmosphere. Restorative Drying Note The performance curve of humidity as vapor pressure in a building during dehumidification will most likely be different than the trapped humidity vapour pressure located inside wet wall cavities. Monitoring the performance humidity curve is a critical component in managing wet building drying. See Ambient Humidity Permeability Factor Relative Humidity Specific Humidity Thermalgraphic Chart Recorders/Sensors


Pergo Flooring

A manufactured floating floor system that has the appearance of hardwood flooring. Pergo is a product trade name owned by Perstop Flooring Inc. Pergo flooring consists of a wood-base core and it is made of wood chips sawdust and adhesive binders compressed under high heat and pressure. The wood material is then applied with a photo-generated picture and it has a wear layer consisting of a melamine plastic finish. Restorative Drying Note The Pergo flooring system has either a five year or seven year product warrantee. Any water damage to the floor may void manufacturer warrantee. If water gets under a Pergo floor system product dehumidification drying may be of little use or benefit but in general the wood chip saw dust binder and floor adhesive on the product including the underlayment are known to weaken and break down often resulting in permanent damage to the effected floor area. For manufacturer information call 800/337-3746. Installation Note All Pergo floor products must have a 6-mil or greater plastic vapour barrier when Pergo products are installed over concrete having less than 5 pounds of vapour pressure per thousand square foot or less than 10%u0025 moisture content of wood subfloors installed with a Pergo SoundblockTM or WhisperwalkTM underlayment.



An event causing exposure and harm to a person possession or a to building. A named peril is a particular peril that is covered or exempt under the insurance policy.


Perimeter Area Cleaning from Fungal Contamination

The removal of migrant dusts dirt and spores through HEPA vacuuming and surface cleaning that may be present due to the spread of the fungal contamination or from the remediation and abatement process.



The ease with which water and moisture chemicals gases and toxins are able to move or migrate into out-of and through porous building materials at a molecular level.


Permeability Factor

In water damage mitigation permeability factor is the ability of moisture as a vapour along with vapour pressure exerting its energy to penetrate into a material by diffusion.


Permissible Exposure Limit PEL

An employee allowable workplace exposure limit to a chemical or biological agent. Health and Safety Note The published permissible exposure levels in which an exposure inhalation or dermal permissible exposure limit exceeds acceptable standards and levels. Employer Note For employees in their workplace it means concentrations of chemicals and agents that must not be exceeded during an 8-hour work shift of a 40-hour work week. There are no PEL levels for persons in non-working environments such as in home unless the home is the designated work facility for a maid gardener plumber or a contractor for example. Also there are no lower limit exposure levels for employees having extreme low tolerance levels to chemicals pollutants and other agents. In California and in other states and the federal register The exposure inhalation or dermal permissible exposure limit specified for California employees are in 8 CCR Chapter 4 Subchapter 7 Groups 14 and 15 and Group 16 Articles 107 109 and 110.


Permit Required Confined Space

Any building or soil space which has a lack of oxygen has hazards agents or circumstances atmosphere engulfment physical which are known or suspect of becoming a direct life and health concern to employees. Federal regulations are found in 29 CFR 1910.146. See Confined Space Non-Permit Required Confined Space



A trademark name of a hydrogen peroxide treatment of contaminated soil in situ. Peroxygen treatments of contaminated soil consists of greater than 30/60%u0025 peroxide.



The ability of some disinfectant chemicals to remain chemically active following their release in to a building or material. Some persistent chemicals remain active and resist biodegradation.


Person or Persons

Means and includes the named insureds and any other individual group company firm association partnership trust estate or governmental body or any other legal entity.


Personal Hygiene

A minimum of soap washing scrubbing and rinsing as a personal care to all exposed skin and contaminated clothing. This is considered by CDC hospitals health departments and doctors as being the number one method for preventing the spread of disease. The personal care mandated by an employer to an employee in keeping personally clean and tidy at all times while on a job. c During a contamination clean-up job personal hygiene is the safe level of decontamination of the employee and their equipment necessary to be considered safe and decontaminated.


Personal Liability

In insurance terminology personal liability are those damages which an insured becomes legally liable for or obliged to pay because of bodily injury or property damage resulting from an occurrence to which insurance coverage applies. Education Note At the insurer expense and with attorneys of their choice the insurer will defend an insured against any covered claim or suit. The insurer is not obligated to pay defense costs including attorneys fees of any claim or suit where the insured selects an attorney not chosen by the insurer because there is a dispute between the insurer and insured over coverage. The insurer may elect to investigate and settle any claim or suit which the insurer considers proper. The insurer obligation to defend any claim or suit ends once the insurer has paid their limit of liability.


Personal Protective Equipment PPE

Company provided repaired and replaced but employee maintained personal safety and health equipment. 29 CFR 1910.132. Contractor Note Equipment which is necessary %u005Bunder OSHA mandates%u005D to provide the level of safety and protection for employees during assessment and mitigation phases of a disaster exposure or hazard. 29 CFR 1910.132 41 CFR 50-204-7. See OSHA Serious Violation


Personal Protective Equipment PPE

All employees are to be properly trained and certified in the use of respirators before donning a respirator. Employees are also to be provided with a level of clothing protection that will protect them before they come in contact with a known or potential hazardous environment. The contractor is to assess the hazards of a job then provide for the proper level of protection. Only employees properly trained are to enter a potentially hazardous area or environment. 29 CFR 1910.120



Some action or event that causes or results in disturbance of the normal function of an environment.


Petroleum Products

Includes petroleum crude or any fraction thereof that is liquid at standard conditions of temperature and pressure 60%u00B0Fahrenheit and 14.7 pounds per square inch absolute. The term petroleum product includes petroleum-based substances comprised of a complex blend of hydrocarbons derived from crude oil.


Phase 1 IAQ Assessment/Audit

An indoor air quality IAQ assessment is an IAQ audit-survey of a building and its occupants. This audit by management or a professional who will take into account the history of the building engineering controls to keep it operating safely HVAC system design prior building usage occupancy loads and design. See Environmental Audit Environmental Assessment


Phase 1 IAQ Preliminary Building Assessment

A visual fact gathering by management of indoor air quality problems. No professional consulting is required but depending on the issues and fact gathering findings a professional may need to be consulted. If the concerns or problems are obvious there should be immediate resolution of the problem by management.


Phase 2 IAQ Sampling with Analysis

The use of ASHRAE standards and suggested EPA recommendations along with indoor air quality sampling. Sampling may include real-time monitoring and sampling for a laboratory. Testing will include thermal conditions temperature and humidity monitoring. Building material deterioration assessment air flow measurements carbon monoxide/dioxide microbiological and VOCs studies are of primary interest to the IAQ/IEQ professional.


Phase 3 IAQ Mitigation

Once all the building issues have been evaluated by the IAQ team immediate problem solving should begin. This often requires the removal of the contaminated sources followed with cleaning and sanitization. The ventilation system may require cleaning and sanitization replacement of some insulation and filter media.


Phase 4 IAQ Diagnosis

If Phase III is not completely satisfactory then a reassessment of the building and occupant concerns is necessary. Additional testing about other issues are important to state what are the remaining issues%u003F Once old and new problems have been identified and isolated mitigation should again be completed with follow up analysis.


Phase 5 IAQ Post-Monitoring and Recurrence Prevention

Depending on the issues such as with flooded buildings it is prudent to recognize that some building concerns may reoccur months later especially when bacteria and fungi were present during the initial cleanup. Change in seasons temperature humidity and time may alter the buildings atmosphere and ecosystem. Post-sampling 6 months and a year later adds to closure of a previously flooded building.


Phoenix Dehumidifiers

A model and type of quality commercial size refrigerant dehumidifiers that can remove from 200 pints to 300 pints of airborne moisture from a humidified atmosphere per day under ideal moisture conditions. The manufacturer of Phoenix dehumidifier equipment is Therma-Stor. See Dri-Eaz Dehumidifiers EBAC Dehumidifiers Restorative Drying



The photographic recording and documentation of a particular damage or event in a still format as compared to a video format.


Picture Window

A type of window with a large center glass area usually bordered on both sides by two smaller windows having similar design.



Upright support members of a building with a height limited to a maximum of three times its least lateral dimension. A pier is designed and constructed to function as an independent structural elements in supporting and transmitting building and environmental loads to the ground.



An upright support member of a building usually long and slender in shape driven into the ground by mechanical means and primarily supported by friction between the pile and the surrounding ground. Piles pilings often cannot act as individual support units and required bracing to other pilings.


Pile Jetting

The use of high-pressure water to position pilings in sandy soil by forcing the sand away from the pile-driving direction.



Also known as Red-Eye which is an inflammation of the eye causing redness discomfort and sometimes a discharge from the affected eye. Health Note Pink-Eye and Red-Eye can be an occupational caused disease from contact with contaminated materials. Pink-eye and red-eye are more commonly referred to as Conjunctivitis. Most conjunctival infections are caused by bacteria for example staphylococci that are spread hand-to-mouth contact with a contaminated surface or where sewage affected pollutants become airborne. Education Note Water damage technicians must wear proper clothing respiratory and eye protection during sewage cleanup. Besides sewage bacteria conjunctivitis can also be caused from airborne dust spores and allergens. c Technicians must eliminate the use of air movers during the cleanup phase especially during mold and sewage damage cleanup or when there is airborne debris created from increased air movement. See Conjunctivitis


Plastic Sealed

A method of temporarily protecting contents and materials that are in harms way or that must be removed because they too are contaminated. Education Note Plastic sealed not only protects an item it also protects employees from risk and exposure.


Plastic Sealed Room

A method of sealing-off and protecting a room from outside exposure or protecting other rooms from a contaminate held inside the room which is to be sealed.


Plate Count

The laboratory method used to determine the microbial population in a petri dish.



Any group of lung diseases caused by the inhalation of certain mineral dusts. These dusts originate from non-fibrous materials so they do not include asbestos or fiberglass. Materials included in pneumoconiosis diseases are silica sand dust from air blasting sanding and stone cutting fine fly ash dust or coal dust. A condition of the respiratory tract due to inhalation of dust that are deposited and retained in the lungs resulting in signs and symptoms of a pulmonary disease called pneumoconiosis.



Inflammation of the lungs due to infection. Most cases of pneumonia involve inhalation of a virus or bacteria including Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus. Education and Health Note Both bacteria of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus are associated with dirty outdoor and indoor building environments. Buildings that have experienced a sewage contamination and aerosolization of bacteria spores are susceptible to the Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus exposures. Staph and Strep bacteria can thrive on organic dust. Pneumonia is also associated with the bacteria Legionella pneumonphilia Legionnaires disease. c During the mitigation of sewage in a building and the cleaning of dirty ventilation systems technicians must wear proper protective clothing and respiratory protection.



Inflammation of the lungs. A persistent condition that result in infection or pneumonia.


Pockets of Saturation

Building areas having no acceptable route of escape for water moisture or water vapour. Some pockets of saturation include wall cavities subfloors chases voids partitions and fire blocks. Other areas having potential pockets of saturation include built-in cabinets shelving vanities baths and shower enclosures.


Points of Demonstration

A location selected between the source area and the potential point of exposure where corrective action goals are implemented.


Points of Exposure

The point at which building occupants or remediation workers come in contact with chemicals toxins vapours or biological agents.



A temporary coat of finish acting as a coating that enhances the appearance of a floor or material surface protecting the substrate of the material. A polish can be altered changed and effected through use and cleaning or atmospheric conditions such as temperature wind humidity and UV light.



The application of a temporary coating that protects materials from wear abrasion soiling and discoloration while smoothing the surface while significantly improving the gloss. Polishes are easily removed and replaced or refurbished.



An organism chemical vapor gas toxin or any other agent that is harmful to a building or to persons either inside or outside a building.



Any substance or condition in the environment that harms the health of a person or a material.


Pollution Liability Insurance Coverage

A coverage that usually protects the contractor from liability and damages resulting from a pollution occurrence. Most general liability policies exclude pollution coverage. However depending on the policy language limited pollution coverage may apply. Pollution insurance may be necessary when contractors come in contact with lead-base paint asbestos contaminated soil liquids and solvents mold sewage biohazards toxins or when contractors use or apply chemicals such as cleaners disinfectants and deodorizers. See General Liability Insurance Policy



An abbreviation for polyethylene sheeting. In the asbestos abatement and mold remediation industry %u0027poly%u0027 is usually referred to as polyethylene or plastic sheeting that covers seals masks protects an environment or contents. In asbestos and mold remediation poly must be 6mm thick plastic sheeting or bags for contaminated material containment. In some areas poly that is used as a barrier of a room for example must be 6mm thick and FR or fire retardant rated.


Polyamide Sweat

A painting condition resulting from too cool or too damp of a surface to be painted. Education Note Polyamide sweat causes a yellow appearance in epoxies either as blotches or uniformity of color. With epoxies the sweat condition can occur when the paint hardeners are not mixed well enough in proper proportions or they are not allowed to sweat prior to application. A method of correction to remove yellowing includes MEK and wiping or a solution of 41 water/vinegar and wiping. Caution if MEK methyl ethyl ketone is used it must be used appropriately with the proper amount of ventilation and worker protection.


Poria incrassata

Poria incrassata is commonly referred to as a building cancer mould. Education Note Poria must be professionally identified and cut out or the building will continue to decay especially when moisture or high humidity is present. This particular fungi is not airborne it is soilborne and it is able to extract water from soil and organic materials where there is sufficient moisture to thrive. Poria travels up through root-like tubes rhizomorphs that it creates. The fungi will travel up the side of concrete steel and wood until it finds a wood material to suck out the life moisture and nutrients. Poria then uses the nutrient source to thrive as it continues to find other building materials including hardwood floors wood studs and joists to decay. Poria will decay normal healthy and dry wood which are not typically attacked by normal wood decaying fungi. Once established in a building Poria can spread throughout a building quickly destroying large sections of flooring and walls typically in several months to a year. Fortunately only a very small percentage of building decay is caused by Poria in the Southwestern part of the United States. Many more reported cases of Poria are in the South and Southeastern U.S.



A long upright support set in holes backfilled with cement or compacted backfilled material. Each post usually requires bracing to other posts. Most posts are made of wood.


Post-Emergency Response

As in the case of a fire damage a post-emergency response is that portion of the emergency after the fire is out allowing for emergency board-up structure stabilization temporary repair cleanup and deodorization. In hazardous materials management a post emergency response is that portion of an emergency response performed after the immediate threat of a release chemical or material hazard has been stabilized or eliminated and clean-up of the site has begun. If post emergency response is performed by the on-site employer own employees who were part of the initial emergency response post-emergency response is considered to be part of the initial response and not a post-emergency response action. However if a group of an employers own employees separate from the group providing initial response performs the clean-up operation then the separate group of employees would be considered to be performing post-emergency response during a hazardous materials cleanup. c After an earthquake flood fire tornado or other natural disaster a post-emergency response is that action necessary to further protect life and property from secondary and consequential harm.



For FEMA insurance rating purposes post-FIRM construction means construction or substantial improvement to a structure that started after December 31 1974 or on or after the effective date of the initial FIRM for a community. For FEMA floodplain management purposes post-FIRM construction means structures for which the start of new or substantial improvement construction commences on or after the effective date of a floodplain management regulation adopted by a community.


Potable Water

Water which is suitable for human consumption. It has the absence of coliform heavy metals and other contaminates which meets the drinking water standards.


potentially Complete Exposure Pathway

A situation with a reasonable likely chance of occurrence in which a person or persons may become directly or indirectly exposed to contaminates and pollutants.


Pounds of Moisture Vapour Pressure

In concrete slabs it is the pounds of moisture pressure exuded up and out of concrete in the form of moisture vapor which must not exceed 3 pounds of moisture vapour per thousand square feet of floor space over a 24 hour period. Contractor Note Cured concrete slabs will always vaporize out acceptable moisture in the form of moisture vapor which dissipates in ambient air of less than 3 pounds of moisture vapor pressure. Concrete slabs that exceed 3 pounds of moisture vapour pressure per thousand square feet of floor space over a 24 hour period do not meet manufacturer installation requirements for sheet vinyl and vinyl tile hardwood strip and hardwood parquet flooring materials. Installing these flooring materials in excess of 3 pounds voids manufacturer warrantees of the product. Glue-down carpet and carpet with pad can have acceptable moisture vapor exceeding 3 pounds but acceptance and clarification of this fact must be acquired from each manufacturer.


Powdering of Concrete

Unlike the presence of efflorescence powdering of concrete is the result of wearing of the concrete surface through abrasion an incompatible use of chemicals on concrete or concrete which was produced to meet a moisture content level higher than what is present. See Efflorescence


Powdering of Finishes

The partial or total disintegration of a polish or film usually from wear or loss of the materials moisture content resulting in a fine light-colored dust.



A definitive procedure for preforming one or more specific operations or functions that does not produce a result. A training method for men and their equipment in a control environment before use in an actual situation.



In indoor air pollution a material or substance that reacts with temperature or sunlight and/or other compounds to produce new chemical materials and volatile organic compounds that are present in air.


Preexisting Conditons

Environmental or construction conditions damage and exposures that are apparent but they have nothing to do with the present damage incident or claim. Education Note Pre-existing conditions in some instances become part of the current mitigation issues since they cannot be separated from the most recent damage incident or claim. See Old Growth



For FEMA insurance rating purposes Pre-FIRM construction means construction or substantial improvement to a structure that started on or before 1 January 1985 or before the effective date of the initial FIRM for a community.


Pre-Job Health and Safety Conference

A health and safety conference or briefing held prior to entering a site for the purpose of initiating hazardous substance removal work.


Preliminary sampling Survey

A very limited sampling survey of indoor air water soil and building materials that are considered suspect or contaminated. See Grab Samples Qualitative Analysis


Premises/Operations Coverage

Insurance coverage to the contractor provides protection while performing a job or task whether the contractor is at the shop or at the customers location. An example would be someone tripping over your tools and being injured. See General Liability Insurance Coverage


Pressure Washing remediation

The equipment most preferred Education Note 1 In the removal of flood water silt and muck in contaminated buildings experiencing catastrophic flooding. Pressure washing should only be used once the amount of contaminated building materials such as drywall insulation and carpet have been removed and disposed. Pressure washing is better when used with warm water and detergents. c Pressure washing main use is the micro-fine removal of solid and saturated waste which has absorbed into and behind salvageable building material framing. Mitigation Note 2 In the removal of sewage solids effluents and bacteria trapped under and inside framing materials low- pressure washing warm water %u005B140-F%u005D and liquid detergent having 60-120 psi is preferred followed by immediate water extraction and turbo-fan drying.


Pressurized Smoke and Vapour

A condition brought about during a fire in a building from heat and cooler air or high heat and vapour pressure that compresses during combustion of burning materials. The pressurized smoke and vapour force combusted airborne particles and soot to penetrate the cooler walls and surfaces with large and micro-fine combusted matter.


Primary Pollutant

In water damages buildings there may be more than one pollutant concern. The one that most likely caused or causes the larger health concern is considered to be the primary pollutant.


Primary Sampling Strategy

An environmental term used by IAQ investigation teams. Primary Sampling Strategy include methods for determine the background of the problem understanding the issues to which they were retained gaining building history and occupant histories. Primary sampling strategy includes fact finding through a visual inspection of the building inside and outside in and under all parts of the building including ventilation system supply and return air coolers and chillers and filters. See Environmental Audit Environmental Assessment Phase-I Secondary Sampling Strategy


PrismProbabilistic Evaluation

The name for an insurance loss managed repair program between participating contractors and Crawford %u0026 Company. Prism is a recent acquisition and subsidiary of Crawford %u0026 Company. The Prism program is said to provide to contractors a competitive edge by training contractors in business and loss management and the daily routine of running an emergency service and restoration business. In addition Crawford %u0026 Company recent involvement and purchase of Prism is meant to incorporate for the contractor Crawfords 400000 estimated annual non-catastrophe claims where a program called Contractor Connection TM comes into play. For more information contact Prism at 800/525-7671 or www.prism-net.com. See Qirra


Probabilistic Evaluation

A modeling process used to evaluate the uncertainty surrounding a probability distribution when the result depends on a number of factors each of which has its own variability and uncertainty.


Process Safety Management PSM

In OSHAs process safety management standard it encompasses the safety concept for the chemical manufacturing industry to properly and safely manage and manufacturer chemicals. Along with the PSM profile manufacturers have the responsibility to provide with each product produced a label of ingredients care and application. In addition a material safety data sheet MSDS will be provided with the manufactured product. See Material Safety Data Sheet


Prohibited use

If a civil authority prohibits the insured from use of the residential premises because of direct damage to neighboring premises by a loss which would have been covered under the Property Section of the policy the insurance policy may allow additional living expense or loss of rents for a defined period which use of the property is prohibited.


Property Damage

The physical harm injury to or destruction of tangible property covered by the insurance policy and their resulting loss of use.


Psychometric Chart

A chart consisting of lines and curves that shows the relationship between temperature humidity and air volume. From the psychometric chart reading a variety of information can be obtained including the specific humidity dew point vapor pressure and wet bulb temperature.


Psychometric Dehumidification Calculator

A slide calculator manufactured by Dri-Eaz Corporation which allows a trained water damage technician to calculate average building wetness. Once determined the technician can interpret the calculated results for the type and amount of dehumidification necessary to dry an average wet building successfully.



A sling-psychrometer consisting of wet-bulb and dry-bulb thermometer that is used to measure the water vapour content in air. An electronic readout instrument which provides real-time psychometric measurements.



The study of the relationship between air humidity and temperature and their effect on various materials and human and plant comfort levels.


Published Exposure Levels

The exposure limits that are published in NIOSH Recommendations for Occupational Safety and Health Standards 1988 incorporated by reference or if no limit is specified the exposure limits published in the standards specified by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists in their publication Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices for 1989-90%u0022 dated 1989 incorporated by reference and more recently 1998 TLVs and BELs Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents.


Push-pull Forced Dehumidification Method

A method of forcing in dryer ambient air while pulling out the humidified air in the ventilation and utility chases in a high-rise building and it is referred to as a push-pull forced dehumidification method. Education and Engineering Note Push-pull forced dehumidification methods can be incorporated in wet wall drying and other methods of building material drying creating a vacuum and accelerated velocity of the air as it passes wet surfaces where the volume of dryer air is moved forced quickly between two spaces resulting in accelerated dehumidification. See Wall Drying



The decomposing of organic waste which smells like bacteria decompose waste in the presence of insufficient oxygen. Putrefaction smells are noxious byproducts of waste and bacterial producing disagreeable odors and toxins. See Endotoxins Toxins


  Disaster Advice
Disaster Advice
Disaster Advice Sections
Disaster Advice
Disaster Advice

Disaster Advice

Disaster Advice

Disaster Advice
Disaster Advice
Disaster Advice Disaster Advice Disaster Advice
Disaster Advice Disaster Advice